Dr Javsicas is presently affiliated with Upstate Equine Medical Center, Schuylerville, NY. This study was completed at the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine. A portion of this work was presented at the 2010 ACVIM Forum.
The Effects of Deferoxamine Mesylate on Iron Elimination after Blood Transfusion in Neonatal Foals
Article first published online: 19 OCT 2010
Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 24, Issue 6, pages 1475–1482, November/December 2010
How to Cite
Elfenbein, J.R., Giguère, S., Meyer, S.K., Javsicas, L.H., Farina, L.L., Zimmel, D.N. and Sanchez, L.C. (2010), The Effects of Deferoxamine Mesylate on Iron Elimination after Blood Transfusion in Neonatal Foals. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24: 1475–1482. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0621.x
- Issue published online: 3 NOV 2010
- Article first published online: 19 OCT 2010
- Submitted June 14, 2010; Revised July 29, 2010; Accepted September 7, 2010.
- Iron chelation;
- Neonatal isoerythrolysis
Background: Hepatic failure is one of the more common complications in foals requiring blood transfusion to treat neonatal isoerythrolysis. Iron intoxication is likely the cause of hepatic injury.
Objectives: To determine the effects of deferoxamine on iron elimination in normal foals.
Animals: Thirteen neonatal foals.
Methods: Randomized-controlled trial. At 1–3 days of age, foals received either 3 L of washed packed dam's red blood cells (RBC) or 3 L of saline IV once. Foals were treated with deferoxamine (1 g) or saline (5 mL) SC twice daily for 14 days. Foals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: RBC/deferoxamine (deferoxamine), RBC/saline (placebo), or saline/saline (control). Blood and urine samples and liver biopsy specimens were collected for measurement of hematological, biochemical, and iron metabolism variables.
Results: There was a significant (P < .05) increase in hematocrit, RBC count, and hemoglobin in the groups transfused with packed RBC as compared with controls at all times. Biochemical variables and liver biopsy scores were not significantly different between groups at any time. Urine iron concentrations and fractional excretion of iron were significantly higher in deferoxamine treated foals. By 14 days after transfusion, liver iron concentrations in foals treated with deferoxamine (79.9 ± 30.9 ppm) were significantly lower than that of foals receiving placebo (145 ± 53.0 ppm) and similar to that of controls (44.8 ± 4.09 ppm).
Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Deferoxamine enhances urinary iron elimination and decreases hepatic iron accumulation after blood transfusion in foals.