Background: Surgical and interventional therapy for occlusion of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in small dogs is challenging. Interventional closure of a PDA is rarely described in small dogs.
Hypothesis: Transvenous single-coil occlusion of a PDA in small (≤3.0 kg) dogs is possible and safe.
Animals: Twenty-one client-owned dogs with a left-to-right shunting PDA.
Methods: Prospective clinical study. Inclusion criteria were a left-to-right shunting PDA and a body weight ≤3.0 kg. Dogs with additional congenital cardiac diseases were excluded. Without arterial access, a single detachable coil was implanted by a transvenous approach with a 4 Fr catheter.
Results: Twenty-one dogs were the study population with Chihuahua and Yorkshire Terrier being the commonest breeds (n = 6 and n = 5, respectively). There were 14 female and 7 male dogs. The age range was 1.9–83.5 months (median, 7.7 months), and the body weight was 1.0–2.9 kg (1.87 ± 0.45). By angiography, the minimal ductal diameter measured 1.2–2.4 mm (median, 1.8 mm) and the PDA ampulla diameter was 2.4–5.9 mm (median, 4.6 mm). Coil implantation was successful in all dogs. After detachment of the coil from the delivery cable, repositioning of the pulmonary loop of the coil became necessary in 1 dog. The prevalence of immediate closure was 76%. The prevalence of cumulative closure was 90%.
Conclusion: For an experienced cardiologist, transvenous occlusion of a PDA in small dogs is possible with a 4 Fr catheter and a commercial single detachable coil. Arterial access is not essential. The procedure is safe and successful in experienced hands.