• 1
    Higgins TL. Quantifying risk and benchmarking performance in the adult intensive care unit. J Intensive Care Med 2007;22:141156.
  • 2
    Harrison DA, Parry GJ, Carpenter JR, et al. A new risk prediction model for critical care: The intensive care national audit and research centre (ICNARC) model. Crit Care Med 2007;35:10911098.
  • 3
    Hayes G, Mathews K, Kruth S, et al. Illness severity scores in veterinary medicine: What can we learn? J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:457466.
  • 4
    Wunsch H, Brady AR, Rowan K. Impact of exclusion criteria on case mix, outcome, and length of stay for the severity of disease scoring methods in common use in critical care. J Crit Care 2004;19:6774.
  • 5
    Le Gall JR. The use of severity scores in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 2005;31:16181623.
  • 6
    Le Gall JR, Loirat P, Alperovitch A, et al. A simplified acute physiology score for ICU patients. Crit Care Med 1984;12:975977.
  • 7
    Knaus WA, Wagner DP, Draper EA, et al. The APACHE III prognostic system: Risk prediction of hospital mortality for critically ill hospitalized adults. Chest 1991;100:16191636.
  • 8
    Zimmerman JE, Kramer AA, McNair DS, et al. APACHE IV- hospital mortality assessment for today's critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2006;34:12971310.
  • 9
    Higgins TL, Teres D, Nathanson B. Outcome prediction in critical care: The mortality probability models. Curr Opin Crit Care 2008;14:498505.
  • 10
    King LG, Stevens MT, Ostro EN. A model for prediction of survival in critically ill dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 1994;4:8599.
  • 11
    King LG, Wohl JS, Manning AM, et al. Evaluation of the survival prediction index as a model of risk stratification for clinical research in dogs admitted to intensive care units at four locations. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:948954.
  • 12
    Rohrbach BW, Buchanan BR, Drake JM, et al. Use of a multivariable model to estimate the probability of discharge in hospitalised foals that are seven days of age or less. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:17481756.
  • 13
    Hayes G, Mathews K, Doig G, et al. The canine acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation (APPLE) score- a severity of illness stratification system for hospitalised dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:10341047.
  • 14
    Caulkett NA, Cantwell, Houston DM. A comparison of indirect blood pressure monitoring techniques in the anesthetized cat. Vet Surg 1998;27:370377.
  • 15
    Dohoo I, Martin W, Stryhn H. Logistic regression. In: Dohoo I, Martin W, Stryhn H, eds. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research. Charlottetown, PEI: AVC Inc; 2003:355368.
  • 16
    Cleveland WS. Robust locally weighted regression and smoothing scatterplots. J Am Stat Assoc 1979;74:829836.
  • 17
    Harrell FE. Relaxing linearity assumptions for continuous predictors. In: HarrellFE, ed. Regression Modeling Strategies. New York: Springer; 2001:2425.
  • 18
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley & Sons; 2000:92128.
  • 19
    Weatherton LK, Streeter EM. Evaluation of fresh frozen plasma administration in dogs with pancreatitis: 77 cases (1995–2005). J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2009;19:617622.
  • 20
    Vincent JL, Berre J, Creteur J. Withholding and withdrawing life prolonging treatment in the intensive care unit. Chron Respir Dis 2004;1:115120.
  • 21
    Verhagen AA, van der Hoeven MA, van Meerveld RC. Physician medical decision-making at the end of life in newborns: Insight into implementation at two Dutch centers. Pediatrics 2007;120:2028.
  • 22
    Gedge E, Giacomini M, Cook D. Withholding and withdrawing life support in critical care settings: Ethical issues concerning consent. J Med Ethics 2007;33:215218.