• 1
    Aneja R, Carcillo J. What is the rationale for hydrocortisone treatment in children with infection-related adrenal insufficiency and septic shock? Arch Dis Child 2007;92:165169.
  • 2
    Annane D, Maxime V, Ibrahim F, et al. Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in severe sepsis and septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:13191326.
  • 3
    Annane D, Sebille V, Troche G, et al. A 3 level prognostic classification in septic shock based on cortisol levels and cortisol response to corticotropin. J Am Med Assoc 2000;283:10381045.
  • 4
    Gibson S, Hartman D, Schenck J. The endocrine response to critical illness: Update and implications for emergency medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2005;23:909929.
  • 5
    Marik P. Critical illness related corticosteroid insufficiency. Chest 2009;135:181193.
  • 6
    Marik P, Zaloga G. Adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill: A new look at an old problem. Chest 2002;122:17841796.
  • 7
    Marik P, Zaloga G. Adrenal insufficiency during septic shock. Crit Care Med 2003;31:141145.
  • 8
    Marik P, Pastores S, Annane D, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: Consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2008;36:19371949.
  • 9
    Rai R, Cohen J, Venkatesh B. Assessment of adrenocortical function in the critically ill. Crit Care Resusc 2004;6:123129.
  • 10
    Tantivit P, Subramanian N, Garg M, et al. Low serum cortisol in term newborns with refractory hypotension. J Perinatol 1999;19:352357.
  • 11
    Watterberg K. Adrenocortical function and dysfunction in the fetus and neonate. Semin Neonatol 2004;9:1321.
  • 12
    Cooper M, Steward P. Corticosteroid insufficiency in acutely ill patients. N Engl J Med 2003;348:727734.
  • 13
    Loisa P, Rinne T, Kaukinen S. Adrenocortical function and multiple organ failure in severe sepsis. Acta Anaesthiol Scand 2002;46:145151.
  • 14
    Marik P. Mechanisms and clinical consequences of critical illness associated adrenal insufficiency. Curr Opin Crit Care 2007;13:363369.
  • 15
    Soni A, Pepper G, Wyrwinski P, et al. Adrenal insufficiency occurring during septic shock: Incidence, outcome, and relationship to peripheral cytokine levels. Am J Med 1995;98:266271.
  • 16
    Gold J, Divers T, Barton M, et al. Plasma adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin/cortisol ratios in septic and normal-term foals. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:791796.
  • 17
    Hart K, Slovis N, Barton M. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in hospitalized neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:901912.
  • 18
    Hurcombe S, Toribio R, Slovis N, et al. Blood arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin hormone, and cortisol concentrations at admission in septic and critically ill foals and their association with survival. J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:639647.
  • 19
    Wong D, Vo D, Alcott C, et al. Baseline plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations and response to low dose ACTH stimulation testing in ill foals. J Am Med Assoc 2009;234:126132.
  • 20
    Davidson J, Bolland M, Croxson M, et al. A case of low cortisol-binding globulin: Use of plasma free cortisol in interpretation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis tests. Ann Clin Biochem 2006;43:237239.
  • 21
    Dhillo WS, Kong WM, Le Roux CW, Alaghband-Zadeh J, et al. Cortisol-binding globulin is important in the interpretation of dynamic tests of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Eur J Endocrin 2002;146:231235.
  • 22
    Hamrahian A, Oseni T, Arafah B. Measurement of serum free cortisol in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2004;350:16291638.
  • 23
    Ho J, Al-Musalhi H, Chapman M, et al. Septic shock and sepsis: A comparison of total and free plasma cortisol levels. J Clin Endocrin Metab 2006;91:105114.
  • 24
    Le Roux C, Chapman G, Kong W, et al. Free cortisol index is better than serum total cortisol in determining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal status in patients undergoing surgery. J Clin Endocrin Metab 2003;88:20452048.
  • 25
    Poomthavorn P, Lertbunrian R, Preutthipan A, et al. Serum free cortisol index, free cortisol, and total cortisol in critically ill children. Intensive Care Med 2009;35:12811285.
  • 26
    Brewer B, Koterba A. Development of a scoring system for the early diagnosis of equine neonatal sepsis. Equine Vet J 1988;20:1822.
  • 27
    Hart K, Heusner G, Norton N, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis assessment in healthy term neonatal foals utilizing a paired low dose/high dose ACTH stimulation test. J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:344351.
  • 28
    Boag A, Hughes D. Assessment and treatment of perfusion abnormalities in the emergency patient. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2005;35:319342.
  • 29
    Boller E, Otto C. Sepsis. In: SilversteinD, HopperK, eds. Small Animal Critical Care Medicine. St Louis, MO: Saunders, Elsevier; 2009:454458.
  • 30
    de Laforcade A, Silverstein D. Shock. In: SilversteinD, HopperK, eds. Small Animal Critical Care Medicine. St Louis, MO: Saunders, Elsevier; 2009:4145.
  • 31
    Janota J, Stranak Z, Statecna B, et al. Characterization of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in very low birthweight infants: A new sequential scoring system. Shock 2001;15:348352.
  • 32
    Dolente B, Wilkins P, Boston R. Clinicopathologic evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation in horses with acute colitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:10341038.
  • 33
    Welch R, Watkins J, Taylor T, et al. Disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with colic in 23 horses (1984–1989). J Vet Intern Med 1992;6:2935.
  • 34
    Reimers T, Salerno V, Lamb S. Validation and application of solid phase chemiluminescent immunoassays for diagnosis of endocrine diseases of animals. Comp Haematol Intern 1996;6:170175.
  • 35
    Singh A, Jiang Y, White T, et al. Validation of nonradioactive chemiluminescent immunoassay methods for the analysis of thyroxine and cortisol in blood samples obtained from dogs, cats, and horses. J Vet Diagn Invest 1996;9:261268.
  • 36
    Adcock R, Kattesh H, Robert M, et al. Relationships between plasma cortisol, cortisosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs over a 24 hours period. J Ann Vet Adv 2006;5:8591.
  • 37
    Lewis J, Bagley C, Elder P, et al. Plasma free cortisol fraction reflects levels of functioning corticosteroid-binding globulin. Clin Chim Acta 2005;359:189194.
  • 38
    Ousey J, Rossdale P, Fowden A, et al. Effects of manipulating intrauterine growth on post natal adrenocortical development and other parameters of maturity in neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 2004;36:616621.
  • 39
    Silver M, Ousey J, Dudan F, et al. Studies on equine prematurity 2: Post natal adrenocortical activity in relation to plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and catecholamine levels in term and premature foals. Equine Vet J 1984;16:278286.
  • 40
    Irvine C, Alexander S. Measurement of free cortisol and the capacity and association constant of cortisol-binding proteins in plasma of foals and adult horses. J Reprod Fert 1987;35 (Suppl):1924.
  • 41
    Meyer H, Rothuizen J. Determination of the percentage of free cortisol in plasma in the dog by ultrafiltration/dialysis. Dom Ann Endocrin 1993;10:4553.
  • 42
    Rokicki W, Forest M, Loras B, et al. Free cortisol of human plasma in the first three months of life. Biol Neonate 1990;57:2129.
  • 43
    Stahl F, Amendt P, Dorner G. Total and free cortisol plasma levels in pre- and post-natal life. Endokrinologie 1979;74:243246.
  • 44
    Dickstein G, Shechner C, Nicholson W, et al. Adrenocorticotropin stimulation test: Effects of basal cortisol level, time of day, and suggested new sensitive low dose test. J Clin Endocrin Metab 1991;72:773778.
  • 45
    Kerlik J, Penesova A, Vlcek M, et al. Effects of endogenous and exogenous hypercortisolemia on low-dose adrenocorticostropin test outcome in humans. J Endocrinol Invest 2009;32:677681.
  • 46
    Bright G. Corticosteroid-binding globulin influences kinetic parameters of plasma cortisol transport and clearance. J Clin Endocrin Metab 1995;80:770775.
  • 47
    Empotz-Bonneton A, Cousin P, Seguchi K, et al. Novel human corticosteroid-binding globulin variant with low cortisol-binding affinity. J Clin Endocrin Metab 2000;85:361367.
  • 48
    Hammond G, Smith C, Paterson N, et al. A role for corticosteroid-binding globulin in delivery of cortisol to activated neutrophils. J Clin Endocrin Metab 1990;71:3439.
  • 49
    Pemberton P, Stien P, Pepys M, et al. Hormone binding globulins undergo serpin conformational change in inflammation. Nature 1988;336:257258.
  • 50
    Strel'chyonok O, Avvakumov G. Interaction of human CBG with cell membranes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1991;40:795803.
  • 51
    Petersen H, Andreassen T, Breiderhoff T, et al. Hyporesponsiveness to glucocorticoids in mice genetically deficient for the corticosteroid binding globulin. Mol Cell Biol 2006;26:73267245.