SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Reef VB. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography. In: Reef VB, ed. Equine Diagnostic Ultrasound. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1998:39186.
  • 2
    Reimers CD, Fleckenstein JL, Witt TN, et al. Muscular ultrasound in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of adults. J Neurol Sci 1993; 116:8292.
  • 3
    Kraus MS, Jesty SA, Gelzer AR, et al. Measurement of plasma cardiac troponin I concentration by use of a point-of-care analyzer in clinically normal horses and horses with experimentally induced cardiac disease. Am J Vet Res 2010; 71:5559.
  • 4
    Muir WW, Sams RA, Ashcraft S. The pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of high-dose methocarbamol in horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 1992; 11:4144.
  • 5
    Schwarzwald CC, Schober KE, Bonagura JD. Methods and reliability of echocardiographic assessment of left atrial size and mechanical function in horses. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68:735747.
  • 6
    Schwarzwald CC, Schober KE, Berli AS, et al. Left ventricular radial and circumferential wall motion analysis in horses using strain, strain rate, and displacement by 2D speckle tracking. J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23:890900.
  • 7
    Schwarzwald CC, Schober KE, Bonagura JD. Methods and reliability of tissue Doppler imaging for assessment of left ventricular radial wall motion in horses. J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23:643652.
  • 8
    Schefer KD, Bitschnau C, Weishaupt MA, et al. Quantitative analysis of stress echocardiograms in healthy horses with 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, tissue Doppler imaging, and 2D speckle tracking. J Vet Intern Med 2010; 24:918931.
  • 9
    Decloedt A, Verheyen T, Sys S, et al. Quantification of left ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, velocity, and displacement in healthy horses by 2-dimensional speckle tracking. J Vet Intern Med 2011; 25:330338.
  • 10
    Lofstedt J. White muscle disease of foals. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1997; 13:169185.
  • 11
    Wilson TM, Morrison HA, Palmer NC, et al. Myodegeneration and suspected selenium-vitamin-E deficiency in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1976; 169:213217.
  • 12
    Pearson EG, Snyder SP, Saulez MN. Masseter myodegeneration as a cause of trismus or dysphagia in adult horses. Vet Rec 2005; 156:642646.
  • 13
    Ludvikova E, Jahn P, Lukas Z. Nutritional myodegeneration as a cause of dysphagia in adult horses: Three case reports. Vet Med-Czech 2007; 52:267272.
  • 14
    Ludvikova E, Jahn P, Pavlata L, et al. Selenium and vitamin E status correlated with myopathies of horses reared in farms in the Czech Republic. Acta Vet Brno 2005; 74:377384.
  • 15
    Owen RR, Moore JN, Hopkins JB, et al. Dystrophic myodegeneration in adult horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1977; 171:343349.
  • 16
    Step DL, Divers TJ, Cooper B, et al. Severe masseter myonecrosis in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991; 198:117119.
  • 17
    Smith RK, Dyson SJ, Head MJ, et al. Ultrasonography of the equine triceps muscle before and after general anaesthesia and in post anaesthetic myopathy. Equine Vet J 1996; 28:311319.
  • 18
    Walker UA. Imaging tools for the clinical assessment of idiopathic inflammatory myositis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2008; 20:656661.
  • 19
    Barigye R, Dyer NW, Newell TK. Fatal myocardial degeneration in an adult quarter horse with vitamin E deficiency. J Equine Vet Sci 2007; 27:405408.
  • 20
    Ferrans VJ, Van Vleet JF. Cardiac lesions of selenium-vitamin E deficiency in animals. Heart Vessels 1985; 45(Suppl):294297.
  • 21
    Kojouri GA, Rezakhani A, Ahmadi H. Arrhythmias in advance stiff lamb disease. Small Rumin Res 2009; 84:6569.
  • 22
    Bonagura JD, Reef VB, Scharzwald CC. Cardiovascular diseases. In: Reed S, Bayly W, Sellon D, eds. Equine Internal Medicine, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:372487.
  • 23
    Yamamoto K, Redfield MM, Nishimura RA. Analysis of left ventricular diastolic function. Heart 1996; 75:2735.
  • 24
    Garcia MJ, Thomas JD, Klein AL. New Doppler echocardiographic applications for the study of diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 32:865875.
  • 25
    Boon J. Evaluation of size, function, hemodynamics. In: Boon JA, ed. Manual of Veterinary Echocardiography. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1998:151260.
  • 26
    Lang RM, Bierig M, Devereux RB, et al. Recommendations for chamber quantification: A report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005; 18:14401463.
  • 27
    Marwick TH. Measurement of strain and strain rate by echocardiography: Ready for prime time? J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 47:13131327.
  • 28
    Teske AJ, De Boeck BW, Melman PG, et al. Echocardiographic quantification of myocardial function using tissue deformation imaging – a guide to image acquisition and analysis using tissue Doppler and speckle tracking. Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2007; 5:27.
  • 29
    Artis NJ, Oxborough DL, Williams G, et al. Two-dimensional strain imaging: A new echocardiographic advance with research and clinical applications. Int J Cardiol 2008; 123:240248.
  • 30
    Stoylen A. Strain rate imaging: cardiac deformation imaging by ultrasound/echocardiography – Tissue Doppler and speckle tracking. Trondheim, Norway: Website Content, 2008. Available at: http://folk.ntnu.no/stoylen/strainrate/. Latest update: November 2010. Accessed January 15, 2011.