• Open Access

Rhodococcus equi: Clinical Manifestations, Virulence, and Immunity


Corresponding author: S. Giguère, Department of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 501 D.W. Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602; e-mail: gigueres@uga.edu.


Pneumonia is a major cause of disease and death in foals. Rhodococcus equi, a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen, is a common cause of pneumonia in foals. This article reviews the clinical manifestations of infection caused by R. equi in foals and summarizes current knowledge regarding mechanisms of virulence of, and immunity to, R. equi. A complementary consensus statement providing recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of infections caused by R. equi in foals can be found in the same issue of the Journal.