Prevalence of Patent Foramen Ovale with Right-to-Left Shunting in Dogs with Pulmonic Stenosis
Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011
Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 1, pages 183–185, January-February 2012
How to Cite
Fujii, Y., Nishimoto, Y., Sunahara, H., Takano, H. and Aoki, T. (2012), Prevalence of Patent Foramen Ovale with Right-to-Left Shunting in Dogs with Pulmonic Stenosis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 183–185. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00839.x
- Issue published online: 10 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 OCT 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 24 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Received: 25 JAN 2011
- Anatomy and pathology;
- Congenital heart defects
Right-to-left (R-L) shunt caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) concurrent with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is considered common, although there is a lack of published evidence.
To investigate the prevalence of R-L shunt caused by a PFO in dogs with PS.
Thirty-one client-owned dogs with PS, without obvious extracardiac disease detected on the clinical examinations.
Case control study: R-L shunt probably caused by PFO was diagnosed when IV injected microbubbles appeared at the left atrial level with an intact atrial septum on echocardiography (bubble-positive dogs). The severity of PS concurrent tricuspid regurgitation (TR), relative thickness of the right ventricle, and relative right atrial area were compared between bubble-positive and bubble-negative dogs.
The prevalence of R-L shunts caused by PFO was 39% (12 of 31 cases). The instantaneous pressure gradient (PG) across the pulmonic valve and relative thickness of the right ventricle were significantly increased in bubble-positive compared with those in bubble-negative dogs. None of the dogs with mild or moderate PS (pressure gradient < 80 mm Hg, n = 2) demonstrated R-L shunt. The prevalence of TR in bubble-positive dogs was significantly higher than that in bubble-negative dogs.
Discussion and Clinical Relevance
Patent foramen ovale PFO with R-L shunt was more common in dogs with very severe PS and absent in dogs with mild PS.