(Åblad, Nilsen). This study was performed at Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Din Veterinär Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden and Blå Stjärnans Animal Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, and Arrhythmias in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease
Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011
Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 1, pages 76–84, January-February 2012
How to Cite
Rasmussen, C.E., Falk, T., Zois, N.E., Moesgaard, S.G., Häggström, J., Pedersen, H.D., Åblad, B., Nilsen, H.Y. and Olsen, L.H. (2012), Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, and Arrhythmias in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 76–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00842.x
Preliminary results of this study were presented as a research abstract for the 2011 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum in Denver, CO.
- Issue published online: 10 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 OCT 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 29 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Received: 24 FEB 2011
- Danish Council of Independent Research|Medical Sciences. Grant Numbers: 271-08-0998, 271-05-03335
- Synergy in Human and Animal Research
- Cavalier King Charles Spaniel;
- Mitral valve prolapse
Autonomic modulation of heart rhythm is thought to influence the pathophysiology of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD).
(1) Holter-derived variables reflecting autonomic modulation of heart rhythm change with MMVD severity in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS); (2) Holter-derived variables can identify MMVD severity in CKCS; and (3) Holter-derived variables in CKCS in congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to MMVD differ from those in dogs of other breeds in CHF.
Ninety privately owned dogs: 70 CKCS with variable MMVD severity and 20 non-CKCS in CHF secondary to MMVD.
Dogs were prospectively recruited and divided into 5 MMVD severity groups based on history, breed, and physical and echocardiographic examination findings. Holter-derived variables included heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR), and arrhythmia evaluated from 24-hour Holter recordings.
In CKCS, 18 of 26 HRV (all P < .0002) and 3 of 9 arrhythmia (all P < .0004) variables decreased with increasing MMVD, whereas minimum and mean HR (all P < .0001) increased with increasing MMVD severity. An arrhythmia variable representing sinus arrhythmia (“premature normals”) (P < .0001) and the HRV variable triangular index (TI) (P < .0001) could distinguish CKCS with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation from CKCS in CHF in specific intervals. Among dogs in CHF, Holter-derived variables did not differ among breeds.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance
In CKCS, Holter-derived variables changed with MMVD severity. “Premature normals” and TI showed diagnostic potential. Breed differences were not seen among dogs in CHF secondary to MMVD.