The study was performed at Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 7 Groennegaardsvej, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark and Din Veterinaer, 2 Ekvändan, 254 67 Helsingborg, Sweden.
Flow-Mediated Vasodilation Measurements in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Increasing Severity of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease
Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011
Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 1, pages 61–68, January-February 2012
How to Cite
Moesgaard, S.G., Klostergaard, C., Zois, N.E., Teerlink, T., Molin, M., Falk, T., Rasmussen, C.E., Luis Fuentes, V., Jones, I.D. and Olsen, L.H. (2012), Flow-Mediated Vasodilation Measurements in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Increasing Severity of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 61–68. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00846.x
Parts of this study have been presented as a Research Report at the 2010 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Anaheim, California.
- Issue published online: 10 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 OCT 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 26 SEP 2011
- Manuscript Received: 11 FEB 2011
- Danish Council of Independent Research. Grant Numbers: 271-07-0784, 271-08-0998
- The Augustinus foundation
- Danish Medical Association
- Asymmetric dimethylarginine;
- Endothelial dysfunction
Cardiovascular disease is associated with endothelial dysfunction in humans and studies of plasma biomarkers suggest that dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) might also have endothelial dysfunction.
That progression of mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with development of endothelial dysfunction.
Forty-three Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with MR of varying severity.
Privately owned CKCS were prospectively recruited and divided in 4 groups: (1) 12 CKCS with minimal MR; (2) 9 CKCS with mild MR; (3) 11 CKCS with moderate-severe MR; and (4) 11 CKCS with moderate-severe MR and clinical signs compatible with heart failure. Dogs underwent blood sampling, echocardiography, blood pressure (BP) recordings, and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) measurements. The effect of progressive MR on FMD was determined by multivariate analyses.
Flow-mediated vasodilation decreased with progression of MR. Group 4 (4.79 ± 3.22%) had significantly lower FMD than groups 1 (10.40 ± 4.58%) and 2 (10.14 ± 3.67%) (P < .005) and group 3 (6.79 ± 3.98%) had a significantly lower FMD than group 1 (P = .03). Increasing left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (P = .0004, R2 = 0.27) and the combination of age (P = .01) and body weight (P = .002) (R2 = 0.31) were significantly associated with reduced FMD. FMD did not correlate with sex, BP, or plasma markers.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance
Reduced FMD indicates that increased disease severity in CKCS with MMVD is associated with development of endothelial dysfunction which might be a future therapeutic and/or diagnostic target.