Renal Disease in Cats Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012
Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 2, pages 238–243, March-April 2012
How to Cite
Baxter, K.J., Levy, J.K., Edinboro, C.H., Vaden, S.L. and Tompkins, M.B. (2012), Renal Disease in Cats Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 238–243. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00871.x
- Issue published online: 20 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 13 DEC 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 7 NOV 2011
- Manuscript Received: 5 JUN 2011
- University of Florida Resident Research. Grant Number: NIH RR-00124
- Human immunodeficiency virus – associated nephropathy;
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection.
To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats.
Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected).
A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment.
Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P < .01). Neither neuter status nor health status were risk factors for proteinuria in FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25).
Conclusions and Clinical Importance
Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection.