Part of the work was presented as a poster at the 15th EVDI Annual Scientific Conference 2010, Giessen, Germany and as an abstract at the 20th ECVIM-CA Annual Congress 2010, Toulouse, France. The work was done at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Clinical, Bronchoscopic, Histopathologic, Diagnostic Imaging, and Arterial Oxygenation Findings in West Highland White Terriers with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Article first published online: 2 MAR 2011
Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 25, Issue 3, pages 433–439, May/June 2011
How to Cite
Heikkilä, H.P., Lappalainen, A.K., Day, M.J., Clercx, C. and Rajamäki, M.M. (2011), Clinical, Bronchoscopic, Histopathologic, Diagnostic Imaging, and Arterial Oxygenation Findings in West Highland White Terriers with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 25: 433–439. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0694.x
- Issue published online: 3 MAY 2011
- Article first published online: 2 MAR 2011
- Submitted July 13, 2010; Revised December 15, 2010; Accepted January 5, 2011.
- Arterial blood gases;
- Bronchoalveolar lavage;
- High-resolution computed tomography;
- Interstitial lung disease
Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, interstitial lung disease primarily affecting West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs).
Objective: To describe the clinicopathological and diagnostic imaging features in WHWTs with IPF.
Animals: Twelve WHWTs with IPF and 14 healthy control WHWTs.
Method: Prospective study. Clinical signs and findings of physical examination, blood and arterial blood gas analyses, radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of IPF dogs were obtained and compared with controls. Histopathologic changes in IPF dogs were evaluated.
Results: Mean partial pressure of oxygen was significantly lower in IPF (mean ± SD, 65.5 ± 15.4 mmHg) than in controls (99.1 ± 7.8 mmHg, P<.001). The alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was significantly higher in IPF (50.1 ± 17.3 mmHg) than in controls (17.5 ± 4.9 mmHg, P<.001). In HRCT, ground glass opacity (GGO) was detected in all IPF dogs, traction bronchiectasis in 4, and honeycombing in 1. Bronchoscopic airway changes were noted in all IPF dogs. On BAL fluid (BALF) cytology, the total cell count (TCC) was higher in IPF dogs, and the numbers but not the percentages of macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells were increased. On histopathology, multifocal or diffuse interstitial fibrosis, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, prominent intraalveolar macrophages, distortion of alveolar architecture, and emphysematous change were detected.
Conclusion and Clinical Importance: IPF causes substantial hypoxemia. In HRCT, GGO is a consistent finding. IPF dogs have concurrent airway changes and an increase in BALF TCC.