• 1
    Bennett RH, Jasper DE. Bovine mycoplasma mastitis from intra-mammary inoculation of small numbers of Mycoplasma bovis. 1. Microbiology and pathology. Vet Microbiol 1977;2:341355.
  • 2
    Nicholas RA, Ayling RD, Stipkovits LP. An experimental vaccine for calf pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma bovis: Clinical, cultural, serological and pathological findings. Vaccine 2002;20:35693575.
  • 3
    Stalheim OH, Page LA. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced mycoplasmal arthritis of cattle. J Clin Microbiol 1975;2:165168.
  • 4
    Gonzalez RN, Sears PM, Merrill RA, Hayes GL. Mastitis due to mycoplasma in the state of New York during the period 1972–1990. Cornell Vet 1992;82:2940.
  • 5
    Adegboye DS, Halbur PG, Nutsch RG, et al. Mycoplasma bovis-associated pneumonia and arthritis complicated with pyogranulomatous tenosynovitis in calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:647649.
  • 6
    Stipkovits L, Rady M, Glavits R. Mycoplasmal arthritis and meningitis in calves. Acta Vet Hung 1993;41:7388.
  • 7
    Butler JA, Sickles SA, Johanns CJ, Rosenbusch RF. Pasteurization of discard mycoplasma mastitic milk used to feed calves: Thermal effects on various mycoplasma. J Dairy Sci 2000;83:22852288.
  • 8
    Gagea MI, Bateman KG, Shanahan RA, et al. Naturally occurring Mycoplasma bovis-associated pneumonia and polyarthritis in feedlot beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 2006;18:2940.
  • 9
    Lamm CG, Munson L, Thurmond MC, et al. Mycoplasma otitis in California calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 2004;16:397402.
  • 10
    Francoz D, Fecteau G, Desrochers A, Fortin M. Otitis media in dairy calves: A retrospective study of 15 cases (1987 to 2002). Can Vet J 2004;45:661666.
  • 11
    Martin SW, Bateman KG, Shewen PE, et al. A group level analysis of the associations between antibodies to seven putative pathogens and respiratory disease and weight gain in Ontario feedlot calves. Can J Vet Res 1990;54:337342.
  • 12
    Thomas A, Ball H, Dizier I, et al. Isolation of mycoplasma species from the lower respiratory tract of healthy cattle and cattle with respiratory disease in Belgium. Vet Rec 2002;151:472476.
  • 13
    USDA. Mycoplasma in bulk tank milk on U.S. dairies. USDA:APHIS:VS: CEAH, National Animal Health Monitoring System, Fort Collins, CO, 2003, N395.0503
  • 14
    Fox LK, Hancock DD, Mickelson A, Britten A. Bulk tank milk analysis: Factors associated with appearance of Mycoplasma sp. in milk. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 2003;50:235240.
  • 15
    Wilson DJ, Goodell G, Justice-Allen A, Smith ST. Herd-level prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. mastitis and characteristics of infected dairy herds in Utah as determined by a statewide survey. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235:749754.
  • 16
    Wilson DJ, Gonzalez RN, Das HH. Bovine mastitis pathogens in New York and Pennsylvania: Prevalence and effects on somatic cell count and milk production. J Dairy Sci 1997;80:25922598.
  • 17
    Punyapornwithaya V, Fox LK, Hancock DD, et al. Association between an outbreak strain causing Mycoplasma bovis mastitis and its asymptomatic carriage in the herd: A case study from Idaho, USA. Prev Vet Med 2010;93:6670.
  • 18
    Bennett RH, Jasper DE. Nasal prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis and IHA titers in young dairy animals. Cornell Vet 1977;67:361373.
  • 19
    Maunsell FP, Donovan GA, Risco C, Brown MB. Field evaluation of a Mycoplasma bovis bacterin in young dairy calves. Vaccine 2009;27:27812788.
  • 20
    Wiggins MC, Woolums AR, Sanchez S, et al. Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in backgrounding and stocker cattle operations. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230:15141518.
  • 21
    Le Grand D, Calavas D, Brank M, et al. Serological prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in suckling beef cattle in France. Vet Rec 2002;150:268273.
  • 22
    Boothby JT, Jasper DE, Zinkl JG, et al. Prevalence of mycoplasmas and immune responses to Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot calves. Am J Vet Res 1983;44:831838.
  • 23
    Fulton RW, Blood KS, Panciera RJ, et al. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments. J Vet Diagn Invest 2009;21:464477.
  • 24
    Campbell J. Economics of Mycoplasma bovis. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Bovine Mycoplasmosis, Saskatoon, Canada, July 7–9, 2009. Available at: Accessed February 2, 2011.
  • 25
    Rosengarten R, Citti C. The role of ruminant mycoplasmas in systemic infection. In: StipkovitsL, RosengartenR, FreyJ, eds. Mycoplasmas of Ruminants: Pathogenicity, Diagnostics, Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics. Brussels: European Commission; 1999:1417.
  • 26
    Pfutzner H, Sachse K. Mycoplasma bovis as an agent of mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and genital disorders in cattle. Rev Sci Tech 1996;15:14771494.
  • 27
    Fox LK, Muller FJ, Wedam ML, et al. Clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in prepubertal heifers on 2 dairy herds. Can Vet J 2008;49:11101112.
  • 28
    Biddle MK, Fox LK, Hancock DD. Patterns of mycoplasma shedding in the milk of dairy cows with intramammary mycoplasma infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:11631166.
  • 29
    Woldehiwet Z, Mamache B, Rowan TG. Effects of age, environmental temperature and relative humidity on the colonization of the nose and trachea of calves by Mycoplasma spp. Br Vet J 1990;146:419424.
  • 30
    Wilson DJ, Skirpstunas RT, Trujillo JD, et al. Unusual history and initial clinical signs of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis and arthritis in first-lactation cows in a closed commercial dairy herd. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230:15191523.
  • 31
    Gonzalez RN, Wilson DJ. Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy herds. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2003;19:199221.
  • 32
    Jasper DE, Alaubaid JM, Fabrican J. Epidemiologic observations on mycoplasma mastitis. Cornell Vet 1974;64:407415.
  • 33
    Pfutzner H. The tenacity of Mycoplasma bovis. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 1984;258:3841.
  • 34
    Justice-Allen A, Trujillo J, Corbett R, et al. Survival and replication of Mycoplasma species in recycled bedding sand and association with mastitis on dairy farms in Utah. J Dairy Sci 2010;93:192202.
  • 35
    Bray DR, Shearer JK, Donovan GA. Approaches to achieving and maintaining a herd free of mycoplasma mastitis. In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council; Albuquerque, NM, February 16–19, 1997, 132–137.
  • 36
    Shahriar FM, Clark EG, Janzen E, et al. Coinfection with bovine virus diarrhea virus and Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot cattle with chronic pneumonia. Can Vet J 2002;43:863868.
  • 37
    Stipkovits L, Ripley P, Varga J, Palfi V. Clinical study of the disease of calves associated with Mycoplasma bovis infection. Acta Vet Hung 2000;48:387395.
  • 38
    Beier T, Hotzel H, Lysnyansky I, et al. Intraspecies polymorphism of vsp genes and expression profiles of variable surface protein antigens (Vsps) in field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis. Vet Microbiol 1998;63:189203.
  • 39
    Lysnyansky I, Sachse K, Rosenbusch R, et al. The vsp locus of Mycoplasma bovis: Gene organization and structural features. J Bacteriol 1999;181:57345741.
  • 40
    Buchenau I, Poumarat F, Grand DL, et al. Expression of Mycoplasma bovis variable surface membrane proteins in the respiratory tract of calves after experimental infection with a clonal variant of Mycoplasma bovis type strain PG45. Res Vet Sci 2010;89:223229.
  • 41
    Le Grand D, Solsona M, Rosengarten R, Poumarat F. Adaptive surface antigen variation in Mycoplasma bovis to the host immune response. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996;144:267275.
  • 42
    Khan LA, Miles RJ, Nicholas RA. Hydrogen peroxide production by Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae and effect of in vitro passage on a Mycoplasma bovis strain producing high levels of H2O2. Vet Res Commun 2005;29:181188.
  • 43
    McAuliffe L, Ellis RJ, Miles K, et al. Biofilm formation by mycoplasma species and its role in environmental persistence and survival. Microbiology 2006;152:913922.
  • 44
    Van Donkersgoed J, Ribble CS, Boyer LG, Townsend HG. Epidemiological study of enzootic pneumonia in dairy calves in Saskatchewan. Can J Vet Res 1993;57:247254.
  • 45
    Jungi TW, Krampe M, Sileghem M, et al. Differential and strain-specific triggering of bovine alveolar macrophage effector functions by mycoplasmas. Microb Pathog 1996;21:487498.
  • 46
    Thomas CB, Van Ess P, Wolfgram LJ, et al. Adherence to bovine neutrophils and suppression of neutrophil chemiluminescence by Mycoplasma bovis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1991;27:365381.
  • 47
    Bennett RH, Jasper DE. Systemic and local immune responses associated with bovine mammary infections due to Mycoplasma bovis: Resistance and susceptibility in previously infected cows. Am J Vet Res 1978;39:417423.
  • 48
    Vanden Bush TJ, Rosenbusch RF. Characterization of the immune response to Mycoplasma bovis lung infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2003;94:2333.
  • 49
    Howard CJ, Gourlay RN, Taylor G. Immunity to Mycoplasma bovis infections of the respiratory tract of calves. Res Vet Sci 1980;28:242249.
  • 50
    Bennett RH, Jasper DE. Bovine mycoplasmal mastitis from intramammary inoculations of small numbers of Mycoplasma bovis: Local and systemic antibody response. Am J Vet Res 1980;41:889892.
  • 51
    Virtala AM, Grohn YT, Mechor GD, et al. Association of seroconversion with isolation of agents in transtracheal wash fluids collected from pneumonic calves less than three months of age. Bovine Practitioner 2000;34:7780.
  • 52
    Bicknell SR, Jackson G, Boughton E, Wilson CD. Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in the dry cow. Vet Rec 1978;102:389.
  • 53
    Caswell JL, Archambault M. Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle. Anim Health Res Rev 2007;8:161186.
  • 54
    Van Biervliet J, Perkins GA, Woodie B, et al. Clinical signs, computed tomographic imaging, and management of chronic otitis media/interna in dairy calves. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:907910.
  • 55
    Alberti A, Addis MF, Chessa B, et al. Molecular and antigenic characterization of a Mycoplasma bovis strain causing an outbreak of infectious keratoconjunctivitis. J Vet Diagn Invest 2006;18:4151.
  • 56
    Kinde H, Daft BM, Walker RL, et al. Mycoplasma bovis associated with decubital abscesses in Holstein calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 1993;5:194197.
  • 57
    Haines DM, Moline KM, Sargent RA, et al. Immunohistochemical study of Hemophilus somnus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia hemolytica, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in death losses due to myocarditis in feedlot cattle. Can Vet J 2004;45:231234.
  • 58
    LaFaunce NA, McEntee K. Experimental Mycoplasma bovis seminal vesiculitis in the bull. Cornell Vet 1982;72:150167.
  • 59
    Uhaa IJ, Riemann HP, Thurmond MC, Franti CE. The use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serological diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in dairy cattle. Vet Res Commun 1990;14:279285.
  • 60
    O'Farrell K, Dillon P, Mee J, et al. Strategy for restocking of Moorepark after depopulation following bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Ir Vet J 2001;54:7075.
  • 61
    Byrne WJ, Ball HJ, Brice N, et al. Application of an indirect ELISA to milk samples to identify cows with Mycoplasma bovis mastitis. Vet Rec 2000;146:368369.
  • 62
    Gonzalez RN, Wilson DJ. Realistic milk culture programs for herd expansion. In: Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council; Orlando, FL, February 3–6, 2002, 118–124.
  • 63
    Punyapornwithaya V, Fox LK, Gay GM, et al. Short communication: The effect of centrifugation and resuspension on the recovery of Mycoplasma species from milk. J Dairy Sci 2009;92:44444447.
  • 64
    Cremonesi P, Vimercati C, Pisoni G, et al. Development of DNA extraction and PCR amplification protocols for detection of Mycoplasma bovis directly from milk samples. Vet Res Commun 2007;31 (Suppl 1):225227.
  • 65
    Hotzel H, Heller M, Sachse K. Enhancement of Mycoplasma bovis detection in milk samples by antigen capture prior to PCR. Mol Cell Probes 1999;13:175178.
  • 66
    Pinnow CC, Butler JA, Sachse K, et al. Detection of Mycoplasma bovis in preservative-treated field milk samples. J Dairy Sci 2001;84:16401645.
  • 67
    Sachse K, Salam HS, Diller R, et al. Use of a novel real-time PCR technique to monitor and quantitate Mycoplasma bovis infection in cattle herds with mastitis and respiratory disease. Vet J 2010;186:299303.
  • 68
    Cai HY, Bell-Rogers P, Parker L, Prescott JF. Development of a real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine milk and lung samples. J Vet Diagn Invest 2005;17:537545.
  • 69
    McAuliffe L, Ellis RJ, Lawes JR, et al. 16S rDNA PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; a single generic test for detecting and differentiating Mycoplasma species. J Med Microbiol 2005;54:731739.
  • 70
    Heller M, Berthold E, Pfutzner H, et al. Antigen capture ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis in milk. Vet Microbiol 1993;37:127133.
  • 71
    Knudtson WU, Reed DE, Daniels G. Identification of Mycoplasmatales in pneumonic calf lungs. Vet Microbiol 1986;11:7991.
  • 72
    Thomas A, Dizier I, Trolin A, et al. Comparison of sampling procedures for isolating pulmonary mycoplasmas in cattle. Vet Res Commun 2002;26:333339.
  • 73
    Biddle MK, Fox LK, Hancock DD, et al. Effects of storage time and thawing methods on the recovery of Mycoplasma species in milk samples from cows with intramammary infections. J Dairy Sci 2004;87:933936.
  • 74
    Francoz D, Fortin M, Fecteau G, Messier SE. Determination of Mycoplasma bovis susceptibilities against six antimicrobial agents using the E test method. Vet Microbiol 2005;105:5764.
  • 75
    Rosenbusch RF, Kinyon JM, Apley M, et al. In vitro antimicrobial inhibition profiles of Mycoplasma bovis isolates recovered from various regions of the United States from 2002 to 2003. J Vet Diagn Invest 2005;17:436441.
  • 76
    Gerchman I, Levisohn S, Mikula I, Lysnyansky I. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Israel from local and imported cattle. Vet Microbiol 2009;137:268275.
  • 77
    Ayling RD, Baker SE, Peek ML, et al. Comparison of in vitro activity of danofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and tilmicosin against recent field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis. Vet Rec 2000;146:745747.
  • 78
    Godinho KS. Susceptibility testing of tulathromycin: Interpretative breakpoints and susceptibility of field isolates. Vet Microbiol 2008;129:426432.
  • 79
    Godinho KS, Rae A, Windsor GD, et al. Efficacy of tulathromycin in the treatment of bovine respiratory disease associated with induced Mycoplasma bovis infections in young dairy calves. Vet Ther 2005;6:96112.
  • 80
    Gourlay RN, Thomas LH, Wyld SG, Smith CJ. Effect of a new macrolide antibiotic (tilmicosin) on pneumonia experimentally induced in calves by Mycoplasma bovis and Pasteurella haemolytica. Res Vet Sci 1989;47:8489.
  • 81
    Stipkovits L, Ripley PH, Tenk M, et al. The efficacy of valnemulin (Econor) in the control of disease caused by experimental infection of calves with Mycoplasma bovis. Res Vet Sci 2005;78:207215.
  • 82
    Musser J, Mechor GD, Grohn YT, et al. Comparison of tilmicosin with long-acting oxytetracycline for treatment of respiratory tract disease in calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:102106.
  • 83
    Godinho KS, Wolf RM, Sherington J, et al. Efficacy of tulathromycin in the treatment and prevention of natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease in European cattle. Vet Ther 2005;6:122135.
  • 84
    Catry B, Duchateau L, Van d V, et al. Efficacy of metaphylactic florfenicol therapy during natural outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2008;31:479487.
  • 85
    Nicholas RAJ, Ayling RD, Woodger N, et al. Mycoplasmas in adult cattle: Bugs worth bothering about? Ir Vet J 2006;59:568572.
  • 86
    Bryson DG, Ball HJ, Brice N, et al. Pathology of induced Mycoplasma bovis calf pneumonia in experimentally vaccinated animals. In: StipkovitsL, RosengartenR, FreyJ, eds. Mycoplasmas of Ruminants: Pathogenicity, Diagnostics, Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics. Brussels: European Commission; 1999:128132.
  • 87
    Boothby JT, Jasper DE, Thomas CB. Experimental intramammary inoculation with Mycoplasma bovis in vaccinated and unvaccinated cows: Effect on the mycoplasmal infection and cellular inflammatory response. Cornell Vet 1986;76:188197.
  • 88
    Byrne WJ, Ball HJ, McCormack R, Brice N. Elimination of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis from an Irish dairy herd. Vet Rec 1998;142:516517.
  • 89
    Stabel JR, Hurd S, Calvente L, Rosenbusch RF. Destruction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk by a commercial on-farm high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer. J Dairy Sci 2004;87:21772183.