This study was performed at the College of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University.
Hypocalcemia and Hypovitaminosis D in Dogs with Induced Endotoxemia
Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012
Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 2, pages 244–251, March-April 2012
How to Cite
Holowaychuk, M.K., Birkenheuer, A.J., Li, J., Marr, H., Boll, A. and Nordone, S.K. (2012), Hypocalcemia and Hypovitaminosis D in Dogs with Induced Endotoxemia. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 244–251. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00886.x
This study was presented as an abstract at the International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society meeting in San Antonio in September 2010.
- Issue published online: 20 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 25 NOV 2011
- Manuscript Received: 13 JUN 2011
- Ontario Veterinary College Department of Clinical Studies
- Animal model;
- Parathyroid hormone;
- Vitamin D
Hypocalcemia is a documented electrolyte disturbance in people and animals with sepsis, but its mechanism is poorly understood.
To investigate mechanisms of hypocalcemia in dogs with experimentally induced endotoxemia.
Six healthy mixed breed dogs were included in this nonrandomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study.
Dogs initially were injected with placebo (0.9% NaCl; 1 mL, IV) and then lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2 μg/kg, IV) after a 5-day washout period. Blood and urine samples were collected for measurement of serum total calcium (tCa), ionized calcium (iCa), total magnesium (tMg), ionized magnesium (iMg), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D), venous blood gases, and fractional excretion (FE) of calcium.
After LPS administration, body temperature increased and blood pressure decreased. Both iCa and tCa decreased (P < .01), but iMg was not significantly different between control and LPS treatments. PTH concentrations increased (P < .01) and vitamin D concentrations decreased (P < .01). Venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and blood glucose also decreased (P < .01). Urine tCa concentration was below the limit of detection for all dogs after LPS administration.
Hypocalcemia occurs during endotoxemia in dogs and is associated with hypovitaminosis D. Hypomagnesemia, hypoparathyroidism, alkalosis, and increased calciuresis are not associated with hypocalcemia in endotoxemic dogs.