• 1
    Barwick RS, Hussni OM, McDonough PL, White ME. Epidemiologic features of equine Leptospira interrogans of human significance. Prev Vet Med 1998;36:153165.
  • 2
    Baverud V, Gunnarsson A, Olsson Engvall E, et al. Leptospira seroprevalence and associations between seropositivity, clinical disease and host factors in horses. Act Vet Scan 2009;51:1525.
  • 3
    Bernard WV. Leptospirosis. Vet Clin North Am 1993;9:435444.
  • 4
    Jung BY, Lee KW, Ha TY. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp in clinically healthy racing horses in Korea. J Vet Med Sci 2010;73:197201.
  • 5
    Houwers DJ, Goris MG, Abdoel T. Agglutinating antibodies against pathogenic leptospira in healthy dogs and horses indicate common exposure and regular occurrence of subclinical infections. Vet Microbiol 2011;148:449451.
  • 6
    Dohlnikoff M, Mauad T, Bethlem EP, Ribeiro Carvalho CR. Pathology and pathophysiology of pulmonary manifestations in leptospirosis. Braz J Infect Dis 2007;11:142148.
  • 7
    Kohn B, Steinicke K, Arndt P, et al. Pulmonary abnormalities in dogs with leptospirosis. J Vet Intern Med 2010;24:12771282.
  • 8
    Marchiori E, Lourenco S, Setubal E, et al. Clinical and imaging manifestations of hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: A state-of-the-art review. Lung 2011;189:19.
  • 9
    Da Rocha Medeiros F, Spichler A, Athanazio DA. Leptospirosis-associated disturbances of blood vessels, lungs and hemostasis. Acta Trop 2010;115:155162.
  • 10
    Paganin F, Bourdin A, Dalban C. Leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean): Analysis of factors associated with severity in 147 confirmed cases. Intensive Care Med 2007;33:19591966.
  • 11
    Harkin KR, Gartrell CL. Canine leptospirosis in New Jersey and Michigan: 17 cases (1990-1995). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1996;32:495501.
  • 12
    Adin CA, Cowgill LD. Treatment and outcome of dogs with leptospirosis: 36 cases (1990-1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:371375.
  • 13
    Greenlee JJ, Alt DP, Bolin CA, et al. Experimental canine leptospirosis caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars Pomona and Bratislava. Am J Vet Res 2005;66:18161822.
  • 14
    Frazer ML. Acute renal failure from leptospirosis in a foal. Aus Vet J 1999;77:499500.
  • 15
    Hodgin EC, Miller DA, Lozano F. Leptospira abortions in horses. J Vet Diagn Invest 1989;1:283287.
  • 16
    Poonacha KB, Donahue JM, Giles RC, et al. Leptospirosis in equine fetuses, stillborn foals and placentas. Vet Path 1992;30:363369.
  • 17
    Nicodemo AC, Duarte MI, Alves VA, et al. Lung lesions in human leptospirosis: Microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features related to thrombocytopenia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1997;56:181187.
  • 18
    Marinho M, Oliveira-Junior IS, Monteiro CMR, et al. Pulmonary disease in hamsters infected with Leptospira interrogans; histopathologic findings and cytokine mRNA expressions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009;80:832836.
  • 19
    Nally JE, Chantranuwat C, Wu XY, et al. Alveolar septal deposition of immunoglobulin and complement parallels pulmonary hemorrhage in a guinea pig model of severe pulmonary leptospirosis. Am J Pathol 2004;163:11151127.
  • 20
    Ren SX, Fu G, Jiang XG, et al. Unique physiological and pathogenic features of Leptospira interrogans revealed by whole genome sequencing. Nature 2003;422:888893.
  • 21
    Xiao G, Huang N. Experimental study of the effect of dexamethasone on pulmonary diffuse hemorrhage and energy metabolism of mitochondria in the liver of guinea pig infected with leptospirosis. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 1999;30:424427.
  • 22
    Trivedi SV, Chavda RK, Wadia PZ, et al. The role of glucocorticoid pulse therapy in pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis. J Assos Phys India 2001;49:901903.
  • 23
    Niwattayakul K, Kaewtasi S, Chueasuwanchai S, et al. An open randomized controlled trial of desmopressin and pulse dexamethasone as adjunctive therapy in patients with pulmonary involvement associated with severe leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2010;16:12071212.
  • 24
    Trivedi SV, Vasava AH, Patel TC. Cyclophosphamide in pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage due to leptospirosis. Indian J Crit Care Med 2009;13:7984.