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Keywords:

  • Cattle poisoning;
  • Crotalaria;
  • Monocrotaline;
  • Peanut oil;
  • Sesame oil

Background

Many Crotalaria plant species contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (such as monocrotaline) that can cause acute and chronic poisoning in cattle and other animals.

Hypothesis

Peanut oil, atropine sulfate, and antidiarrheal agents are used to treat acute monocrotaline poisoning. The effect of sesame on acute monocrotaline poisoning has never been investigated.

Animals

Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for toxicity studies.

Methods

Experiment 1: Group I, control. Groups II–IV were given monocrotaline (205.2 mg/kg) and euthanized 6, 12, and 24 hours later. Experiment 2: Group I, control. Group II monocrotaline alone (205.2 mg/kg). Groups III–VI were given monocrotaline (205.2 mg/kg) and 1 hour later, Groups III and IV were given sesame oil (1 and 2 mL/kg) and Groups V and VI were given peanut oil (1 and 2 mL/kg).

Results

Monocrotaline significantly decreased (< .05) serum amylase activity, but, over time, increased (< .05) pancreatic and lung injury. AST and ALT activity and liver injury peaked at 24 hours. Sesame oil and peanut oil (< .05) inhibited the changes in all tested parameters in acute monocrotaline poisoning. Although peanut oil inhibited acute monocrotaline poisoning, it induced steatosis, but sesame oil did not.

Conclusion and Clinical Importance

We hypothesize that early pancreatic and lung injury and late liver injury contribute to acute monocrotaline poisoning and that sesame oil is more efficacious than peanut oil against acute monocrotaline poisoning in rats. However, additional studies are needed to confirm that these oils have the same effects in cattle and other animals.