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Keywords:

  • Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid;
  • Bladder;
  • Enrofloxacin;
  • Lower urinary tract infection

Background

Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in dogs usually are treated with antimicrobial drugs for 10–14 days. Shorter duration antimicrobial regimens have been evaluated in human patients.

Hypothesis

A high dose short duration (HDSD) enrofloxacin protocol administered to dogs with uncomplicated UTI will not be inferior to a 14-day treatment regimen with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

Animals

Client-owned adult, otherwise healthy dogs with aerobic bacterial urine culture yielding ≥103 CFU/mL of bacteria after cystocentesis.

Methods

Prospective, multicenter, controlled, randomized blinded clinical trial. Enrolled dogs were randomized to group 1 (enrofloxacin 18–20 mg/kg PO q24h for 3 days) or group 2 (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 13.75–25 mg/kg PO q12h for 14 days). Urine cultures were obtained at days 0, 10, and 21. Microbiologic and clinical cure rates were evaluated 7 days after antimicrobial treatment was discontinued. Lower urinary tract signs and adverse events also were recorded.

Results

There were 35 dogs in group 1 and 33 in group 2. The microbiologic cure rate was 77.1 and 81.2% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The clinical cure rate was 88.6 and 87.9% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Cure rates between groups did not differ according to the selected margin of noninferiority.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

HDSD enrofloxacin treatment was not inferior to a conventional amoxicillin-clavulanic acid protocol for the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial UTI in dogs. Further research is warranted to determine if this protocol will positively impact owner compliance and decrease the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.