Partial results of this study were presented as a Research Report at the 2010 ACVIM Forum in Anaheim, CA.
Systemic Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Dogs with Congestive Heart Failure
Article first published online: 10 APR 2012
Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 3, pages 547–557, May-June 2012
How to Cite
Cunningham, S.M., Rush, J.E. and Freeman, L.M. (2012), Systemic Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Dogs with Congestive Heart Failure. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 547–557. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00923.x
- Issue published online: 2 MAY 2012
- Article first published online: 10 APR 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 1 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 31 JAN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 2 OCT 2011
- Barkley Fund
- C-reactive protein;
- Reactive hyperemia;
- Valvular disease
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with endothelial dysfunction in people and in dogs with experimentally induced CHF, but this is not well characterized in dogs with naturally occurring CHF.
To evaluate endothelial function via assessment of reactive hyperemia (RH) in healthy dogs and dogs with CHF, and to assess for relationships with plasma biomarkers of vascular function and clinical markers of disease severity.
Twenty client-owned animals with CHF due to myxomatous mitral valve disease (n = 15) or dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 5) and 17 healthy control dogs.
Prospective case-controlled observational study. Dogs underwent blood sampling, echocardiography, and Doppler assessment of brachial artery velocity (VTI) at baseline and during reactive hyperemia (RH-VTI). RH-VTIs between control dogs and dogs with CHF were compared, and the relationships between RH-VTI, clinical parameters, and plasma biomarkers were assessed.
Dogs with CHF (96.5 ± 51.7%) had an attenuated % increase in VTI during RH compared to healthy controls (134.8 ± 58.7%; P = .04). Increasing ISACHC class (R2 = 0.24; P = .004), plasma NT-proBNP (R2 = 0.15; P = .03) and CRP (R2 = 0.2; P = .02) were associated with reduced RH-VTI. Increased plasma CRP, NOx, and NT-proBNP concentrations were found in dogs with CHF (P < .02 for all). No differences were detected in other plasma markers.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance
Dogs with CHF have an attenuated RH response, and increased plasma CRP and NOx concentrations. Doppler assessment of RH velocity could represent a novel noninvasive method of evaluating endothelial function in the dog.