Intravenous Hypertonic Saline Solution (7.5%) and Oral Electrolytes to Treat of Calves with Noninfectious Diarrhea and Metabolic Acidosis
Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012
Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 1042–1050, July-August 2012
How to Cite
Leal, M.L.R., Fialho, S.S., Cyrillo, F.C., Bertagnon, H.G., Ortolani, E.L. and Benesi, F.J. (2012), Intravenous Hypertonic Saline Solution (7.5%) and Oral Electrolytes to Treat of Calves with Noninfectious Diarrhea and Metabolic Acidosis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 1042–1050. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00960.x
- Issue published online: 13 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 3 APR 2012
- Manuscript Received: 6 JUN 2011
Vol. 26, Issue 5, 1236, Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of treating osmotic diarrhea and dehydration in calves with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) IV, isotonic electrolyte solution (IES) PO, and a combination of these 2 solutions (HSS + IES).
Eighteen male calves 8–30 days of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of 3 methods of fluid therapy after induction of osmotic diarrhea and dehydration. The diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administration of saccharose, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide for 48 hours. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Group 1: 7.2% hypertonic saline solution-HSS (5 mL/kg IV); Group 2: oral isotonic electrolyte solution IES (60 mL/kg PO); or Group 3: HSS+IES. Clinical signs and laboratory finding observed 48 hours post-induction (Time 0) included diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis.
Calves treated with HSS + IES experienced decreases in hematocrit, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma volume as well as increases in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, and central venous pressure between 1 and 3 hours post-treatment. These findings also were observed in animals treated with IES, however, at a slower rate than in the HSS + IES-treated animals. Animals treated with HSS continued to display signs of dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis 24 hours post-treatment.
Treatment with a combination of HSS and IES produced rapid and sustainable correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis in calves with noninfections diarrhea and dehydration.