• 1
    Balzarini J, Aquaro S, Perno CF, et al. Activity of the (R)-enantiomers of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine against human immunodeficiency virus in different human cell systems. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;219:337341.
  • 2
    Balzarini J, Holy A, Jindrich J, et al. Differential antiherpesvirus and antiretrovirus effects of the (S) and (R) enantiomers of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: Potent and selective in vitro and in vivo antiretrovirus activities of (R)-9-(2-phosphonomethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993;37:332338.
  • 3
    Vahlenkamp TW, De Ronde A, Balzarini J, et al. (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine is a potent inhibitor of feline immunodeficiency virus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995;39:746749.
  • 4
    North TW, North GL, Pedersen NC. Feline immunodeficiency virus, a model for reverse transcriptase-targeted chemotherapy for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:915919.
  • 5
    Tanabe-Tochikura A, Tochikura TS, Blakeslee JR Jr, et al. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents are also potent and selective inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-induced cytopathic effect: Development of a new method for screening of anti-FIV substances in vitro. Antiviral Res 1992;19:161172.
  • 6
    Hart S, Nolte I. Long-term treatment of diseased, FIV-seropositive field cats with azidothymidine (AZT). Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 1995;42:397409.
  • 7
    Hartmann K, Donath A, Beer B, et al. Use of two virustatica (AZT, PMEA) in the treatment of FIV and of FeLV seropositive cats with clinical symptoms. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1992;35:167175.
  • 8
    Hartmann K, Donath A, Kraft W. AZT in the treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus infection. Part 2. Feline Pract. 1995;23:1320.
  • 9
    Balzarini J, Baba M, Pauwels R, et al. Anti-retrovirus activity of 3′-fluoro- and 3′-azido-substituted pyrimidine 2′,3′-dideoxynucleoside analogues. Biochem Pharmacol 1988;37:28472856.
  • 10
    De Clercq E, Sakuma T, Baba M, et al. Antiviral activity of phosphonylmethoxyalkyl derivatives of purine and pyrimidines. Antiviral Res 1987;8:261272.
  • 11
    Holy A, Rosenberg I. Acyclic nucleotide analogs. 1. Synthesis of isomeric and enantiomeric O-phosphonylmethyl derivatives of 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine. Collect Czech Chem C 1987;52:27752791.
  • 12
    Holy A, Rosenberg I. Acyclic nucleotide analogs. 3. Synthesis of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine and related-compounds. Collect Czech Chem C 1987;52:28012809.
  • 13
    Holy A, Votruba I, Merta A, et al. Acyclic nucleotide analogs - Synthesis, antiviral activity and inhibitory Effects on some cellular and virus-encoded enzymes in vitro. Antivir Res 1990;13:295311.
  • 14
    Egberink H, Borst M, Niphuis H, et al. Suppression of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in vivo by 9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)adenine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87:30873091.
  • 15
    Egberink HF, Hartman K, Horzinek MC. Chemotherapy of feline immunodeficiency virus infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;199:14851487.
  • 16
    Hartmann AD, Wilhelm N, Balzarini J, et al. Clinical efficacy of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine (PMPDAP) in the treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats. J Feline Med Surg 2012;14:107112.
  • 17
    Hartmann K, Kuffer M. Karnofsky's score modified for cats. Eur J Med Res 1998;3:9598.
  • 18
    Hoffmann-Fezer G, Thum I, Herbold M, et al. T-helper and T-suppressor lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of spontaneously FIV-positive cats. Tierarztl Prax 1991;19:682686.
  • 19
    Steinrigl A, Klein D. Phylogenetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus in Central Europe: A prerequisite for vaccination and molecular diagnostics. J Gen Virol 2003;84:13011307.
  • 20
    Steinrigl A, Ertl R, Langbein I, et al. Phylogenetic analysis suggests independent introduction of feline immunodeficiency virus clades A and B to Central Europe and identifies diverse variants of clade B. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2010;134:8289.
  • 21
    Klein D, Janda P, Steinborn R, et al. Proviral load determination of different feline immunodeficiency virus isolates using real-time polymerase chain reaction: Influence of mismatches on quantification. Electrophoresis 1999;20:291299.
  • 22
    Klein D, Leutenegger CM, Bahula C, et al. Influence of preassay and sequence variations on viral load determination by a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for feline immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26:820.
  • 23
    Klein D, Musil C, Hirt R. Possibilities and limitations of molecular diagnostic methods in clinical microbiology: Feline immunodeficiency virus as an example. Wiener Tieraerztl Wochenschrift 2000;87:269277.
  • 24
    Klein D, Bugl B, Gunzburg WH, et al. Accurate estimation of transduction efficiency necessitates a multiplex real-time PCR. Gene Ther 2000;7:458463.
  • 25
    Ishida T, Taniguchi A, Matsumura S, et al. Long-term clinical observations on feline immunodeficiency virus infected asymptomatic carriers. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1992;35:1522.
  • 26
    Bendinelli M, Pistello M, Lombardi S, et al. Feline immunodeficiency virus: An interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev 1995;8:87112.
  • 27
    Haschek WM, Weigel RM, Scherba G, et al. Zidovudine toxicity to cats infected with feline leukemia virus. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1990;14:764775.
  • 28
    Hoover EA, Ebner JP, Zeidner NS, et al. Early therapy of feline leukemia virus infection (FeLV-FAIDS) with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA). Antiviral Res 1991;16:7792.
  • 29
    Hartmann AD, Wilhelm N, Balzarini J, et al. Clinical efficacy of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine (PMPDAP) in the treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats. J Feline Med Surg 2012;14:107112.
  • 30
    Pisarev VM, Lee SH, Connelly MC, et al. Intracellular metabolism and action of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates on DNA replication. Mol Pharmacol 1997;52:6368.
  • 31
    Otova B, Holy A, Votruba I, et al. Genotoxicity of purine acyclic nucleotide analogs. Folia Biol 1997;43:225229.
  • 32
    Donovan RM, Dickover RE, Goldstein E, et al. HIV-1 proviral copy number in blood mononuclear cells from AIDS patients on zidovudine therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991;4:766769.
  • 33
    Nunez M. Hepatotoxicity of antiretrovirals: Incidence, mechanisms and management. J Hepatol 2006;44:S132139.