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Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years. Poor early posthospital global functioning is significantly associated with later suicidal activity only for men in both our schizophrenia and depressive samples. Early display of psychotic symptoms is associated with later suicidal activity among male schizophrenia patients. Early cognitive impairment is not significantly associated with later suicidal activity for any of the four groups of patients. The study results must be seen as exploratory and will hopefully spur future research on this important topic.