ABSTRACT: MLA Foreign Language Proficiency Tests for Teachers and Advanced Students were administered in 1965 to 2,782 seniors majoring in French, German, Italian, Russian, or Spanish at 203 institutions. The resulting data provided new evidence on a number of issues significant in the selection and training of future language teachers, though conclusions must be drawn with caution. Audio-lingual skills were generally low. Even brief time spent abroad had a potent effect on a student's language skills. Students of French or Spanish who started the language in elementary school tended to have an advantage over other majors. Those from homes where the foreign language was spoken attained greater competence. Foreign language aptitude is a factor significantly associated with the level of skill attained, but many low-aptitude students are able to compensate by diligent study and practice or because of special opportunities such as study abroad. Males and females were equal in language-learning ability. Students at larger institutions outperformed those at smaller ones, and students at private institutions did better than those at public ones. (Four figures and eleven tables are included.)