Abstract: This paper presents the results of an exploratory study on advanced-level French second language learners' metalinguistic awareness. Specifically, we examined learner performance in carrying out three steps of a written and oral grammatically judgment test. First, subjects' ability to identify and correct an error, and to provide the rule, which the correction entailed, was examined according to group membership (communicative or grammar), types of errors, and mode of presentation. In a second phase of the analysis, judgment ability was compared with specific aspects of L2 proficiency. Results show significant differences between the groups in their ability to provide the rule that the correction entailed. Furthermore, significant differences in judgment ability were found depending on whether the item was presented in the written or oral mode. Generally, little difference was found in levels of L2 proficiency between subjects who could correct the error and provide the rule in comparison with those who were only able to correct the error.