Abstract: Models of bilingual memory allow language teachers and psycholinguists to propose and visualize mental relationships within and between languages. Following a review of the most common mental models, this article describes a study comparing the translation of cognates from French into English by more- and less-skilled bilinguals. Results of this preliminary study, wherein more-skilled bilinguals experienced significantly greater translation onset intervals than less-skilled bilinguals, suggest that a new model unique to the cognate must be considered. Pedagogical implications based on the study, and stemming from the proposed cognate model, are presented.