Negotiation Moves and Recasts in Relation to Error Types and Learner Repair in the Foreign Language Classroom


  • Frank A. Morris

    1. University of Miami
    Search for more papers by this author
    • 2

      Frank A. Morris (PhD, University of Minnesota) is Assistant Professor of Spanish Applied Linguistics at the University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.


ABSTRACT: This study assessed the provision and use of Implicit Negative Feedback in the interactional context of adult beginning learners of Spanish working in dyads (NNS–NNS) in the foreign language (L2) classroom. The relationships among error types, feedback types, and immediate learner repair were also examined. A total of 42 beginning FL learners of Spanish enrolled in two different sections of Beginning Spanish participated in the study. During regular class time, learners formed pairs and worked on the same jigsaw task. The collaborative work of all pairs was tape-recorded, transcribed, and later coded for types of error (syntactic/lexical), types of NF (explicit/recasts/negotiation moves), and repair. Findings indicated that learners did not provide explicit negative feedback. Learners did provide and did use INF (recasts and negotiation moves) when working in NNS–NNS dyads. In addition, lexical errors favored the negotiation of form; syntactic errors invited recasts, but differential effects were found in terms of learner repair. Negotiation moves proved more effective in immediately repairing errors than did recasts.