Pennylyn Dykstra-Pruim (PhD, University of Wisconsin, Madison) is a Research Associate in German and Applied Linguistics at Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Speaking, Writing, and Explicit Rule Knowledge: Toward an Understanding of How They Interrelate
Article first published online: 31 DEC 2008
© 2003 American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
Foreign Language Annals
Volume 36, Issue 1, pages 66–76, March 2003
How to Cite
Dykstra-Pruim, P. (2003), Speaking, Writing, and Explicit Rule Knowledge: Toward an Understanding of How They Interrelate. Foreign Language Annals, 36: 66–76. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-9720.2003.tb01933.x
- Issue published online: 31 DEC 2008
- Article first published online: 31 DEC 2008
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between writing performance and speaking performance through quantitative analysis of the variance and correlation among oral, written, and explicit rule abilities as evidenced in present-tense verbal morphology and syntax. Subjects performed an explicit rule grammar test and a narration task in speaking and writing modes. The operating hypotheses were (1) oral abilities and written abilities differ significantly; (2) oral abilities and written abilities are not strongly correlated; (3) explicit rule knowledge is not a predictor of how well learners can speak or write in the target language. The extent to which the data supported these hypotheses is discussed; concrete pedagogical implications for task ordering, assessment, and explicit rule testing are outlined.