Abstract: This study compared L2 listening comprehension with L2 reading comprehension in terms of the roles of linguistic knowledge, background knowledge, and question types among 168 university students learning English in Korea. The analyses ojthe data found that L2 listeners processed inferential information more easily than factual information, while the reverse was true for L2 readers. In addition, linguistic and background knowledge exerted significant effects on L2 listening comprehension. In L2 reading comprehension, however, linguistic knowledge played a significant role, while background knowledge played only a moderate role. In terms of the interaction among linguistic knowledge, background knowledge, and question types, only linguistic and background knowledge in L2 listening comprehension and linguistic knowledge and question types in L2 reading comprehension were significant. Third, linguistic knowledge and background knowledge combined explained a total variance of 14% in L2 listening comprehension and 20% in L2 reading comprehension. These findings show that L2 listening comprehension and L2 reading comprehension differ from each other and that the comprehension of an oral and written text is a more complex process than the interactive process model holds.