• attitudes;
  • beliefs;
  • international comparison;
  • structural equation modeling;
  • university students
  • French;
  • Japanese;
  • relevant to all languages

Abstract: In our global economy, it is important to understand all factors influencing successful language learning. A survey of more than 6,000 university students in Canada, Japan, and France revealed differences in language learning beliefs, attitudes, and motivations in the three countries. Learners in Canada and France exhibited primarily instrumental and integrative motivation, respectively, whereas learners from Japan displayed a different form, social capital motivation, in which knowledge of a foreign language carries value in and of itself. Knowledge of these different forms of motivation has pedagogical and political implications for language teachers.