• German;
  • error correction;
  • foreign language teaching;
  • writing accuracy;
  • written corrective feedback

Abstract: This study explores the effectiveness of instructor-written corrective feedback for the improvement of writing accuracy by beginning college-level learners of German. The researcher investigated changes in error rates in six error categories in essay writing in correlation with three different corrective feedback types administered consistently throughout one semester: direct, coded, and uncoded feedback. The author analyzed both short-term revision effects and semester-long changes. The study found that all groups improved their accuracy in redrafting; participants did not shorten the essay length in the final drafts to eliminate errors; direct correction led to slightly higher correction rates for selected errors; and there was no significant difference in overall error rate changes between the groups. The study concludes with suggestions for further research and pedagogical applications.