Learning Complex Grammar in the Virtual Classroom: A Comparison of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, Computerized Visual Input Enhancement, and Traditional Instruction
Article first published online: 23 FEB 2012
© 2012 American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Inc.
Foreign Language Annals
Volume 45, Issue 1, pages 42–71, Spring 2012
How to Cite
Russell, V. (2012), Learning Complex Grammar in the Virtual Classroom: A Comparison of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, Computerized Visual Input Enhancement, and Traditional Instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 45: 42–71. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-9720.2012.01168.x
- Issue published online: 23 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 23 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 NOV 2011
- Manuscript Received: 30 MAY 2011
- distance language learning;
- pedagogical techniques;
- Web-based foreign language instruction;
- word animation
This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form for Web-based delivery. VIE was operationalized as word animation of subjunctive forms. Four experimental groups (+PI +VIE, +PI -VIE, +SI +VIE, +SI -VIE) were compared with traditional instruction (TI), and the results indicate that for interpretation and production tasks, there were no signifi cant differences between TI and the experimental groups. However, for interpretation tasks on the immediate posttest, the +PI+VIE group outperformed the +SI-VIE group. In addition, responses from the Posttreatment Questionnaire revealed that learners who received PI, with or without VIE, expressed a preference for the PI materials over their regular course materials, which fell under the TI paradigm.