Content and Language Integration in K–12 Contexts: Student Outcomes, Teacher Practices, and Stakeholder Perspectives



This literature review, which examines the research on integrating the teaching of content and language at the pre-K–12 level, provides a synthesis of research conducted over the past 10 years in a wide array of educational contexts, ranging from content-driven, high time-intensive to language-driven, low time-intensive program models. Organized into three major thematic strands, this review examines research on student outcomes, on classroom interaction studies that emphasize teacher practice, and on stakeholder perspectives in contexts where approaches aiming at integrating content and language in instruction are being implemented. The review concludes with a discussion highlighting key issues that remain to be addressed and outlines directions for future research.