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Keywords:

  • language learning anxiety;
  • learner attitudes;
  • learner beliefs;
  • learner perceptions;
  • motivation

Abstract

This literature review examines recent research in the area of learner attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs about language learning and about themselves as language learners, together with the consequences of these perceptions on learning outcomes. After an overview of relevant definitions of these complex concepts, the review categorizes this research into three orientations: studies that have focused on how learner attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs relate to their traits and characteristics; studies that have examined how these notions relate to the learning environment; and studies that have looked at how these notions play out in the interaction between the learner and the environment. The review concludes with suggestions related to research design and research questions that would address current lacunae in the field.