• Spanish;
  • action research;
  • advance organizer;
  • foreign language in higher education;
  • second language learning;
  • video-based instruction


The study compared participant comprehension of foreign language video content using two advance organizer (AO) strategies while exploring the benefits of AOs as proficiency increases. Participants were 50 advanced-beginner Spanish college students in three sections. Collaborative reading condition participants read a target language narrative video script aloud in groups, watched the video of the script, and took a test. Individual reading condition participants read the same script quietly before watching the video and taking the test. Control group participants did not read the script before watching the video and taking the test. The study was conducted at the start and end of the semester. Results indicate that AOs increased video comprehension. Researchers concluded that learners benefit to similar degrees from access to AOs as proficiency increases.