Bedrock/Core, Base, Plus, and Threshold Strategies in the JFL Context



Although research into language learning strategies over the past 30 years has provided many insights into how good language learners facilitate the language learning process, few studies have targeted learners of Japanese in a foreign language learning environment. This study sought to (1) identify the spoken communication strategies used by learners of Japanese in foreign language learning environments, and (2) explore Core strategies, Base strategies, and Plus strategies in the Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) context. Information about the language learning strategies used by learners of Japanese was gathered, initially using interviews. These interview data were recorded, analyzed, and compiled into a strategy inventory. The inventory was made available online to students learning Japanese in various institutions in Queensland, Australia. The results of the study show that learners of Japanese in foreign language learning environments frequently use a range of strategies to maintain communication in spoken interactive contexts. There is evidence of the existence of Core, Base, and Plus strategies in Japanese and a subset of these strategies identified as Threshold strategies.