Pre/postintervention questionnaire data were evaluated for differences in outcomes over time. Descriptive, independent samples t tests and Mann–Whitney U nonparametric statistics were used for analysis to determine group differences and statistical significance. Out of a possible 215 staff, 212 staff participated in the SBAR-CCE intervention. Staff were provided informed consent before the completion of the pre/postintervention surveys. There were 141 completed preintervention surveys (group 1) and 71 completed postintervention surveys (group 2). A paired t test was excluded because of repeated measures and the inability to identify paired samples due to the lack of identifiers on many of the surveys in both groups.
Survey analysis is divided into three sections: demographics, teamwork climate, and safety climate. Demographic data included gender, position, ethnicity, unit, and years of experience for the preintervention and postintervention survey groups (Table 1). All participants were recruited from the pediatrics/perinatal department. The two groups were similar in the areas of gender, position, ethnicity, and years of experience. There were small differences in the distributions of the units between the two groups (Table 1).
The Teamwork and Safety Climate survey is comprised of 27 items. The first 14 items are specific to teamwork climate, and the final 13 items are focused on safety climate. Differences were seen between the groups after the SBAR-CCE intervention. The Mann–Whitney U showed 18 of the 27 items to have statistically significant differences after the intervention. At the 95% confidence interval, 12 of the 27 items showed statistical significance. Effects sizes for the individual items ranged from small 0.1 to medium 0.5. There were 6 items with a small effect, 21 items with medium effect, and 0 items with large effect. Six of the 14 teamwork climate items (1, 2, 5, 9, 13, and 14) showed statistically significant differences between groups after the intervention. Three of the remaining items (3, 4, and 7) showed statistical significance only on the Mann–Whitney U, and five items (6, 8, 10, 11, and 12) showed no significant differences between the groups. Of the 13 safety climate items, six items (18, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 25) showed statistical significance between groups, three items (15, 16, and 17) statistical significance only on the Mann–Whitney U, and four items (19, 24, 26, and 27) showed no significant differences between groups postintervention (Table 2).