Abstract— A shock experiment has been devised to produce large shear in a single crystal sample of olivine. The recovered sample exhibits macroscopic shear faults resembling shock veins in ordinary chondrites. Examination with transmission electron microscopy reveals a high density of dislocations in the bulk olivine. The shear faults appear as thin veins containing small grains of olivine and pockets of glass. The microstructure and composition of the material in the veins point to fractional crystallization of a melt. An order of magnitude calculation is consistent with the idea that the veins were produced by shear melting. These results support the view that shock veins in meteorites are the result of shear heating rather than of pressure heterogeneities.