When Dr. Roger W. Crosskey and his wife were staying with Wendy and me in August 2009, Roger suggested that I might consider trying to discover the origins of the names of anopheline species described since the publication in 1982 of Anopheline Names: Their Derivations and Histories written by James B. Kitzmiller. Jim's book is a masterpiece that cannot be bettered. I was at first enthusiastic, but I soon realized that I would be in Jim's shadow, and he casts a long one. Jim had received a classical education and as he says in his book while at a “tender age” at high school he had a rudimentary knowledge of Latin, Greek, French and German. He says “Whether for environmental or genotypic reasons, I cannot say, but I am one of those fortunate persons to whom languages come easily.” Having also an excellent scientific brain as well as a flare for languages, ancient and modern, is a combination that few of us can equal, certainly not I, who has always struggled with foreign languages. Nevertheless, although lacking certain talents being retired I had time on my hands so decided to make a start on the project that Roger had suggested.
Mosquito names derived from geographical locations are relatively easy to research. In fact, there is usually a surfeit of knowledge on the Internet or in books but sometimes it is difficult to focus on information that would be of most interest to readers. However, as I imagine that most readers will be scientists, especially those interested in biology, I have wherever possible and appropriate included information on the fauna and flora of geographical regions, whether it is a county or a much smaller area such as a town or nature reserve. With well known animals such as elephants and tigers I have given only vernacular names but for subspecies such as the forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) found in Cameroon and lesser known animals such as Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus) of Iran I have included their scientific names. English names of plants are less known internationally and so I have usually included their scientific names. I have generally avoided including present day politics and names of heads of state for several reasons, suffice to say such material rapidly becomes outdated.
Some of the more interesting names are patronymics, the names of mosquitoes derived from people's names, such as Anopheles vaneedeni, a tribute honoring the South African entomologist Mr. Gideon van Eeden. I invited all scientists who were honored by a species name to write a short account of their life and work, which if necessary I would edit. Only one scientist did not respond to my request for information on his life and work and so a rather brief, and in many ways unsatisfactory, account of this person's life is given. Deceased scientists required a different approach! With the help of the little known but invaluable two books of Pam Gilbert (1977, 2007) which list the sources of obituaries of entomologists I was able to find most published obituaries. These I edited, and sometimes added to. Obituaries in Portugese, Spanish or Russian were kindly translated into English by colleagues or friends, and their efforts acknowledged.
Sometimes a species name is an acronym such as nimpe, which stands for the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology – NIMPE. Other times a species is given a Latin or Ancient Greek name, for example crypticus, a Latin word meaning hidden, and epiroticus a Greek word denoting people from the district of epiroticus. Other times no explanation is given concerning the origins of a species name, such as halophylus, which although not stated is I presume derived from the Greek words hals and philo meaning brackish or salt loving, thus reflecting the larval saline larval habitats.
My classical education lacks the knowledge to explain, let alone discuss, the finer points concerning the Latinization of species names. Fortunately Jim Kitzmiller in his book on anopheline names presents a scholarly and erudite account of the “rules” that should govern the correct Latinization of species names, although sadly this is not always been adhered to. So those wanting to understand the intricacies of scientific names should read Jim's account on pages 3–5 of his book.
With papers in non-European languages such as Chinese it can be difficult to know whether a species is named after a locality or a person. Although such papers are sometimes translated into English, often anonymously, there may be no mention of the derivation of species names. Consequently with some Chinese publications I asked a Chinese mosquito taxonomist to explain the derivations of species names.
Finding and explaining the derivations of 75 new anopheline names is dwarfed by the task Jim Kitzmiller faced in tracing the origins of 767 names and I doubt whether anyone else could have done the task so well. Of the 75 new names in this publication, 74 are names of species while the other is the name of a new subgenus. Of the names 25 are patronymics, of which 21 honor men, two honor women and another two species were each named after a man and woman. People honored with names are from Australia, Botswana, Brazil, Britain, Canada, China, France, Italy, Malaysia, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand and the U.S.A. Twenty-one names are derivatives of classical Latin and or Greek, of which the names often describe morphological features of the adults, or relate to larval habitats, 26 names are geographical place names and finally two are acronyms of research institutes.
One of the more entertaining dedications is for An. irenicus of which the authors say “The species name is derived from the Greek eir ēnikos, aiming at peace. Evidence to date indicates that this species does not bite humans but lives in peaceful coexistence. We fervently hope that peace will reign for all inhabitants of the beautiful Solomon Islands.”
I have essentially retained the format of species entries used by Kitzmiller but there are a few differences. For instance I include references to the publications of Ward (1984, 1992) and Gaffigan and Ward (1985) that list the names of new mosquito species described since the publication of the Knight and Stone (1977) catalog that Kitzmiller (1982) used. Another difference to Jim's book is that I have enclosed in quotation marks the exact wording, including any incorrect spellings or grammatical errors, used by authors when explaining the naming of a new species. I have also tried to give brief notes on how a new species differs from closely related ones. For example, whether a new species is based on just one or several life stages and whether a life stage in isolation from other stages can be correctly identified to species. Also whether morphological identification needs to be backed up by cytotaxonomic or molecular methods, or a combination of both techniques, so as to obtain reliable species identification, or whether only genetic and or biochemical methods provide correct identification. Increasingly, new species are found to be in a complex of morphologically very similar species. As justification for a new species is sometimes based on very small morphological differences, it should not be too surprising if at a later date its species status is queried and its name becomes a junior synonym.
I have also included brief notes on the biology of new species and whether they are known to be disease vectors. This publication, however, is not meant to be a taxonomic exposition or a source of scientific information on the taxonomy of anopheline mosquitoes, but rather a readable, and hopefully entertaining, account of how diverse names have been given to new Anopheles species.
I have found the publication of Harbach and Howard (2007) listing the names of all mosquito species and Harbach's continually updated Mosquito Taxonomic Inventory to be invaluable. Finally I fear that errors will have likely crept in but I sincerely hope they are not too serious! My cut-off date for new entries was 20 May 2010.
Gad, Harbach, and Harrison 2006. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 108: 366–380.
Name“The species is named in recognition of Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, and its support of mosquito biological research and vector control.” This species was known informally as An. ainshamsi for almost 25 years before it was formally described and named An. ainshamsi n. sp. The reason for this was that although Gad, El Said, Hassan, and Shoukry (1987) had presented many aspects of the biology of An. ainshamsi (pp. 211, 214, and 217), there was no description of the species, so the name became a nomen nudum of Gad et al. (1987). See Ward (1992) p. 210. In 2006, when Gad et al. (1987) formally described this species, they chose to resurrect the name An. ainshamsi.
The university was founded in July 1950 under the name “Ibrahim Pasha University.” It collaborated with two earlier universities, “Cairo University” (Fua'd the 1st) and “Alexandra University” (Farouk the 1st). After the 23 July 1952 revolution it was suggested that Egyptian universities be given names linked with historical landmarks of Egypt. So on 21 February 1954 the university was renamed “Heliopolis”, then in the same year changed to its present name “Ain Shams” being the Arabic word for “Heliopolis”, or “O'n” which was the world's oldest university, having been established some 5000 years ago. The emblem of the university is an obelisk and two hawks. The obelisk stands for the house of life at the city of “O'n”, while the two hawks are symbolic of Horus, the Egyptian god at that time. The present university is now located in an area of the Zaafaran Palace, built during the regime of Khedive Ismail. The Palace's name derives from the surrounding area which was famous for its saffron (in Arabic Zaafaran) plantations. The university comprises seven campuses, all being in Great Cairo. The many faculties include Commerce, Languages, Medicine, Environmental Studies, Science and Engineering.
Gad (1967) collected larvae from saltwater pools near the Red Sea coast, Egypt and although he initially identified them as An. stephensi, he later realized this species was unknown in Africa and western areas of the Arabian Peninsula. So he sent specimens to the late Peter F. Mattingly who while realizing they were not typical An. stephensi apparently never considered they might be a new species. In 1981 Gad established a colony in Cairo and surprisingly found that the females were autogenous.
Anopheles ainshamsi is a species in the Neocellia Series, a group characterized by larval habitats that are exposed temporary pools. An. ainshamsi seems to be closely related to An. dancalicus, a brackish water species found in Ethiopia. Adult female An. ainshamsi can be distinguished from related species by small taxonomic differences, such as the distribution of pale and dark scales on the palps, thorax and wings, pale spots on the legs and a dark hindtarsomere 5. Adult males can be identified by the structure of the male genitalia. Pupae are identified by mainly setal characters such as seta 1–V and VI being longer than in An. salbaii and An. dancalicus, while fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of characters including minor differences in their setae. There appears to be no species specific character that can identify eggs as those of An. ainshamsi. Attempts to get DNA sequence data from type specimens and other specimens collected more than 20 years earlier failed. Immature stages are found in salt water pools, often with the common saltwater Palaearctic Aedes detritus. Adults are found in uninhabited areas, but will nevertheless bite humans entering such areas. Possible hosts in the absence of humans include passerine birds, lizards, deer and camels, but whether females actually feed on any of these animals is unknown. Only known from the coastal area of Râs Shukeir District on the Red Sea Coast, Egypt.
Name From the Greek word allophos meaning without a crest. Described as a new species by A. G. Peryassú (1921).
Kitzmiller (1982) stated that An. allopha was a synonym of An. albitarsis. However, Lourenço-de Oliveira and Deane (1984) concluded it was a nomen nudum, while Linthicum (1988) believed it was a nomen dubium. Ward (1992) gives it as a nomen nudum on page 210.
Gordeyev, Zvantsov, Goryacheva, Shaikevich and Yezhov, 2005. Meditsinskaia Parazitologia i Parazitarnye Bolezni 2: 4–5. (In Russian).
Name“In honour of the outstanding Russian entomologist, Dr. Mikhail Artemiev (1943–2002).”
Mikhail Mikhailovich Artemyev was born in 1943 and died suddenly and prematurely on 16 February 2002 at the age of 59. He had graduated in 1966 in the Faculty of Biology and Soil Sciences of Moscow State University and in 1966 started his Masters degree. On completion he became junior researcher and then advanced to senior researcher. He later became a senior scientific officer in the Department of Medical Entomology of the Martsinovsky Institute of the Moscow Academy of Medicine. In 1987 he was head of Medical Entomology, and in 1993 became Chief Scientific Officer. He was a professor of Biology and also a member of the editorial board of the journal Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases. All his research and teaching was related to the Martsinovsky Institute. His main interests and research were on phlebotomine sand flies and mosquitoes. In 1967 he was sent to Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (which became Turkmenistan in 1991) as a member of an expedition researching sandfly vectors of leishmaniasis. At an early age, his enormous love of work and scientific intuition immediately became apparent. This led in 1972 to his dissertation on the population ecology of vectors, mainly Phlebotomus papatasi, of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, and proposals for controlling leishmaniasis. However, his most prolific work was in Afghanistan from 1971–1978 as part of the anti-malaria mission of the Soviet Ministry of Health. At this time he made a valuable collection of numerous mosquitoes and sand flies in different ecological zones of Afghanistan. Later using his collections from other countries he produced a reclassification of the sand flies of the world. He described seven new species of sand flies from the USSR, 39 from Afghanistan, six from Mongolia, four from Syria, two from Kenya, one each from Somalia and Iran. This resulted in a doctoral dissertation on the classification of sand flies. His scientific work was not limited to sand flies as he was highly qualified in medical entomology and spent much of his time studying the biology, ecology, and classification of mosquitoes as well as developing integrated vector control programs. In the 1970s and 1980s he joined several missions of the Ministry of Health to Azerbaijan and Tajikistan, which gave him more practical experience in malaria control and in the use of new insecticides, and also the opportunity to teach medical entomology to many entomologists in those republics. Mikhail was author and co-author of more than 110 scientific papers, three monographs, on the sand flies of Afghanistan, on the distribution and ecology of sand flies in the Old World, and on larvivorous fish. He was internationally recognized as an expert on biological control of mosquitoes and was a WHO Biological Control Expert and traveled to Switzerland, Mozambique, China, Vietnam and Syria. He was a very active teacher and supervised seven Ph.D. degrees. Not only did he have encyclopedic knowledge of medical entomology but also on ethnography and early 20th century Russian poetry. In addition to Russian, he spoke English, French and Persian. This account is based on an English translation by Jerry Miller and Liz Winter from a Russian obituary. See Gilbert (2007).
The following account of An. artemievi is based on a poor English translation of the Russian. Anopheles artemievi is a member of the An. maculipennis species complex and morphologically most resembles An. sacharovi and An. martinus. Morphological characters cannot distinguish this species from these two other species. According to the pattern of the polytene chromosomes of the ovarian nurse cells, An. artemievi is identical to An. maculipennis Meigen. However, An. artemievi can be identified as a new species by the species-specific second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal gene cluster (ITS2). Little is known about the ecology of this species except that adults were caught in a cowshed at the Alga settlement. This species may be an important malaria vector in both the Fergana area and the Fergana valley, Kyrghyzstan. It is known from Kyrghyzstan localities of the Batkensk Region, Leileksky district, and Alga settlement.
González and Sallum 2010. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 105: 13–24.
Name“The name, atacmensis, is derived from the name of the geographical locality where the specimens were first collected, the Atacama Region of Northern Chile.”
In 1843, Atacama was created as a Province but was elevated to Regional status in 1974, comprising the Provinces of Chañaral, Copiapó and Huasco. Atacama is located in the north of Chile and extends for 600 km from the Loa River to the CopiapÓ River and is about 800 km north of Santiago the capital of Chile. The original people living in the area were the Diaguitas, Changos and the Incas, all of whom valued the mineral wealth in the area, such as gold, silver, copper and iron. In 1882, the Chañarcillo silver mine was discovered and for many years was the world's third largest silver mine. Much of the region consists of desert, of which parts are the driest in the world and seemingly support little or no life. Because the terrain looks so much like the surface of the moon it was chosen as a test site for future lunar rover buggies. The remains of an Inca fortress, Pukara de Quitor discovered in the desert, show that the desert must have been more hospitable than it is today. The desert is bounded on the west by the Pacific coast and on the East by the Andes Mountains. Parts of the interior of Atacama are devoid of vegetation, and insects, fungi and even bacteria are scarce. However, rain and spring waters from the Altiplano Plateau in the Andes create oases and even forests with trees such as the algarrobo (Prosopis alba) and the chañar (Geoffroea decorticans) as well as extensive tufted grasslands. There are about 550 species of vascular plants many of which are endemic, including three cactus species. Mammals include llamas, vicuñas, alpacas, viscacha (Lagidium viscacia), taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the gray fox (Lycalopex griseus) as well as a mouse (Phyllotis darwini rupestris). Birds species include the Andean flamingo (Phoenicopterus andinus), Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and the Puna flamingo (Phoenicopterus jamesi), also the lesser rhea (Rhea pennata tarpacensis), thick-billed miner (Geositta crassirostris), Andean swallow (Haplochelidon andecola), Chilian woodstar (Eulidia yarrellii) and hummingbirds. On the coast there are penguins, terns, gulls, cormorants, pelicans, oyster catchers and boobies. Resources include mining for metals such as iron which accounts for almost half of the country's GDP (Gross Domestic Product) most of which is exported, copper is another commonly mined metal. There has been a boom in fruit growing due to its sunny climate; fruit ripens more quickly than in other parts of Chile and so reaches the market earlier. Grapes are the main fruit that is grown and exported, but olives, raisins, tomatoes, peppers, citrus fruits, nectarines, apricots and oregano are also grown, as are flowers. In the Atacama desert there are some wonderful rock art images (petroglyphs) showing engravings and paintings on natural rock surfaces, often of animals such as llamas. This art form spans three cultural periods, the Late Archaic, the Early Formative years and the Late Formative years. The oldest of these consists of engravings that have been linked to settlements of hunter-gatherers dating from 5000–4000 BP. The Taira-Tulan and Confluencia styles of engravings and paintings, respectively, developed in a pastoral environment during the Early Formative period between 4000 BP and 2400 BP. In the Late Formative Period, which lasted until 1600 BP, the style of painting is known as Cueva Blanca.
Anopheles atacamensis is morphologically closer to An. pictipennis than any other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus and in the past this has caused specimens of An. atacamensis from the Atacama Region to be misidentified as An. pictipennis. These two species although very similar can usually be distinguished by a combination of characters. For example adult females have large scutal scales with a pair of broad subdorsal stripes extending posteriorly from the anterior scutal angle to the scutellum; the acrostichal area has two lines of white spatulate scales reaching the anterior margin of the scutellum and hindtarsomere 5 is mostly white scaled but has a dark ring at the apex. Male adults can be more easily distinguished from those of An. pictipennis by the structure of the genitalia, such as having the apex of the aedeagus tapering to a blunt point. Pupae of An. atacamensis differ from those of An. pictipennis in mainly setal characters such as having seta 9–VIII spine-like, and having outer large basolateral serrations on the paddle. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by mainly setal characters, such as the size and number of branches in setae 1–IV and 1–P. Immature stages were found in small, permanent fresh water pools is oases in the Atacama desert and also in the slow running waters alongside the Copiapo River. The habits of the adults are unknown. Known only from the Atacama region, Chile.
Harbach and Navarro, 1996. Entomologia Scandinavica 27: 207–216.
Name“The specific name, auyantepuiensis is a Latinized geographical name meaning from Auyantepui”.
The Pemon Indians who live near Auyantepui, the House of the Devil, vowed that they would never venture there. Auyantepui is the largest tepuv or tepuis (table top mountain or mesa) in Bolivar State, Venezuela. Auyantepui is an immense sandstone table top mountain (mesa, tepuv or tepuis) in the Venezuelan Guayana. It has such magnificent landscapes that it was chosen for Steven Spielberg's film Arachnophobia, Disney's Jungle to Jungle and Dinosaurs. However, it had remained unknown to the “outside world” prior to the late 1930s. Although it is rumored that in 1921 Jimmie Angel, a bush pilot and colorful soldier of fortune from Missouri, met an old Alaskan-born prospector, J.R. McCraken, in a bar in Panama who told Jimmie about fabulous gold ore on a remote mountain top along the border of Venezuela and Brazil. Over drinks they planned to fly to Venezuela in search of the gold, which they did in 1924. McCraken however, died during the expedition and it seems Jimmie did not bring back any gold ore. Then on 16 November 1933, while again flying to find the elusive bed of gold ore, he discovered the world's highest waterfalls at the northern end of Auyantepui which was named Angel Falls in his honor. The waterfall cascades more than 979 m making it about 15 times higher than Niagara Falls, and thus the world's steepest waterfall. In October 1937 Angel again flew over the area, this time accompanied by his new wife and three friends to search for gold, but his monoplane nose-dived on landing on muddy ground. Everyone survived but with little food they had to trek across difficult terrain for 11 days and make their way down the tepui before reaching the nearest settlement of Kamarata. His plane remained atop the mountain for 33 years before it was dissembled and lifted out by Venezuelan military helicopters in 1970. A plane purporting to be the reconstructed plane from the mountain stands outside Ciudad Bolivar airport, but some consider it is a replica not the original crashed plane. Angel was born in 1899 and died aged 57 in Panama in 1956 from injuries received from a flying accident. In July 1960 his widow, two sons and close friends flew over Angel Falls and scattered his ashes. The first scientific exploration of the mesa was when the 1937–1938 Phelps Venezuelan Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History collected numerous zoological and botanical species. Many more new species have since been collected from the area. On 20 December 2009 Hugo Chavez, President of Venezuela, renamed the falls Kerepakupai Meru.
Zavortink (1973) published a review of the subgenus Kerteszia and concluded that a single female mosquito from the Auyantepui mesa in Bolivar State, southern Venezuela “almost certainly represented a distinct species,” but he did not name the specimen because it was too badly damaged. Then in February 1994 J.C. Navarro collected several mosquitoes, including the new species An. auyantepuiensis, from the summit of Auyantepui. This new species differs from others known Kerteszia by having scales on the acrostichal area of the scutum and narrow pale bands on the hind tarsi. In other respects it is morphologically very similar to An. neivai, a widespread South American species occurring to the north but unknown in Auyantepui.
Adults of An. auyantepuiensis are morphologically close to An. bambusicolus and An. neivai but can be distinguished from these two species as follows. Adult females have only a patch of scales on the upper part of the mesepimeron, scales present on the acrostichal area and hindtarsomeres have 2–4 narrow white bands on the distal 0.15–0.5. Pupae can be differentiated from those of An. neivai and An. pholidotus by a combination of characters including the margin of the paddle having spicules that are entirely filamentous and extend to about the proximal half of the margin and seta 1–P being rather stout, relatively short and minutely split or forked apically. Fourth instar larvae can be identified mainly by their abdominal setae such as having most caudal setae of the ventral brush weakly developed and shorter than the saddle, and seta 13–III is usually double and longer than the segment. Male adults and eggs are unknown. This new species appears to be a geographically isolated relict of an ancestral species which gave rise to An. neivai. Larvae were collected from terrestrial water-filled leaf axils of large bromeliads Brocchina tatei, Vriesea rubra and V. duidae in a forest on the Auyantepui summit, located within the Canaima National Park in Bolivia State. This species was not found in smaller bromeliads. Adult females are described as aggressive and crepuscular biters. Anopheles auyantepuiensis is a suspected malaria vector. Only known from the type locality of Auyantepui, where it appears to be geographically isolated.
Harbach, Rattanarithikul and Harrison 2005. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 107: 750–761.
Name“Baimaia is a patronymic honoring Prof. Visuit Baumi of Mahidol University, Bangkok, for his many important contributions to our knowledge of the cytogenetics and systematics of Anopheles mosquitoes in southeastern Asia. We chosen to Latinize Visuit's surname by adding the feminine suffix “-a” rather than the masculine “-us” because Baimaia is more euphonious to pronounce (Bi-mi-d). The three-letter abbreviation Bmi. is recommended for this subgenus.”Baimaia is a subgenus of the genus Anopheles and appears to be related to the subgenus Anopheles.
A phylogenetic study of the Anophelinae based on morphological characters revealed that Baimaia is the earliest taxon derived from an ancestor that gave rise to all other Anopheles (Harbach and Kitching, 2005). The only species in this subgenus is Anopheles kyondawensis which is found in forested hilly and mountainous areas on both sides of the Thai-Myanmar border located between about 14° and 17° north, and at another locality (18°50’ N and 100° 50’ E) some 400 km northeast of these localities near the Thai-Laos border in Nan Province, Thailand. Larval habitats are crab-holes and small pools alongside streams. Adults have never been collected in the wild. Anopheles kyondawensis is of no medical importance.
Sallum and Peyton 2005. pp. 175–180. In Sallum, Peyton and Wilkerson. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19: 158–199.
Name“This species is named after Prof. Visut Baimai for his valuable contributions to systematics of the Leucospyrus Group.” Formerly An. dirus D of Baimai et al. (1984).
Visut Baimai was born in Sukhothai Province, Thailand on 1 April 1942. He was a medical student at the Medical University (now Mahidol University) in Bangkok during 1960–1961. In 1962 he was awarded a Colombo Plan Scholarship to study at the University of Queensland, Australia. He gained a B.Sc. (Hons. in Zoology) in 1966 and his Ph.D. (genetics of Drosophila) in 1969. He joined Mahidol University, Bangkok, in June 1969 as a lecturer in biology in the Faculty of Science. He married Saovapha Srikiew (Lek) on 31 October 1970. He has three sons. In 1973 he went to the University of Hawaii as a postdoctoral fellow working on Hawaiian Drosophila with Professor H.L. Carson until 1975. He then returned to Mahidol University as Head of the Department of Biology (1975–1991) where he remained until his retirement in 2002. He was Visiting Professor at the Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1981 working on cactus feeding Drosophila species complex. He has been the Director of the Biodiversity Research and Training Programme (BRT) since 1996. After retirement, he was appointed Emeritus Professor and became the Director of the Center for Vectors and Vector–Borne Diseases at Mahidol University (2002–2007). During his years at Mahidol University his principal research interests were population genetics and evolutionary biology of Drosophila (vinegar-flies), Bactrocera (fruit-flies), Simulium (black-flies) and particularly the Oriental Anopheles. He has published about 150 scientific papers on these subjects. He traveled extensively in Thailand and also in several localities in neighboring countries in Southeast Asia for field collections of anopheline mosquitoes. He had a fruitful collaboration with B.A. Harrison and his successors including R. Andre, R. Rosenberg, J. Gingrich and R.E. Harbach at AFRIMS (Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences), Bangkok. Applying population genetics analyses and ecological observations on field collected specimens, Professor Baimai has confirmed for the first time that An. balabacensis s. l., a primary vector of human malarial parasites in Southeast Asia, is a cryptic species comprising at least four sibling species occurring in Thailand that were provisionally designated An dirus species A, B, C and D. These species have since been given formal names of An. dirus s.str., An. cracens, An. scanloni and An. baimaii, respectively. This discovery of the An. dirus species complex provides fundamental knowledge allowing further studies on the geographical distributions of these four species in relation to their epidemiologies, physiological adaptations, genetics, ecologies, systematics and phylogenetic relationships. Professor Baimai and his colleagues, including C.A. Green, have also discovered several groups of sibling species complexes of the Oriental Anopheles including An. maculatus, An. minimus and more recently An. barbirostris. A new subgenus of Anopheles, namely BaimaiaHarbach, Rattanarithikul and Harrison (2005), was recently named in his honor. Professor Baimai has served as a consultant to several institutions including the Malaria Division, Ministry of Public Health in Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar and Indonesia. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Institute of Thailand in 1986. He received awards and honors from many organizations in Thailand, e.g., Senior Research Scholar, Outstanding Biological Researcher, Outstanding Scientist, and Honorary Degrees of Science from five universities in Thailand including Mahidol University.
Most members of the An. dirus species complex were first recognized as distinct species by crossing experiments, cytogenetics (chromosome banding patterns), alloenzyme data and later by DNA probes and by DNA hybridization. Then, in the 1980s to 2002, DNA-based polymerase chain reactions (PCR) further helped to differentiate species in the An. dirus species complex. Only after these studies were the new species formerly named as shown in this document. Heterochromatin of the metaphase sex chromosomes resulted in An. baimaii being recognized as a new species in the An. dirus species complex in 1984, later crossing experiments and molecular methods confirmed its specific status. Diagnostic morphological characters of the eggs can separate An. baimaii from other species in the complex. Adults can be identified by a combination of morphological characters such as color and length of the proboscis together with the pattern of dark and pale scales on the wings and legs. Pupae, except those of An. scanloni and the male pupa of An. cracens, cannot be distinguished from other species of the An. dirus species complex. Fourth instar larvae can be identified, but not from An. cracens, by a combination of mainly setal characters such as seta 5–C (inner frontal hair) being longer than the antenna and the basal sclerotized tubercle of seta 1–P (inner shoulder hair) having a prominent tooth or spine on the posterodorsal margin. Larval habitats are extremely varied ranging from animal footprints, pools, small streams, wells and many other aquatic collections, and not surprisingly often in the types of habitat favored by An. dirus. Females have been collected from cow sheds in Assam, India, and in Bangladesh from a settlement of brick-makers living in constructions made of bamboo. Anopheles baimaii feeds on domestic animals and humans, often entering houses to feed. Anopheles baimaii is an important vector of both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in forests throughout most of its range. This species is known from Bangladesh, India including the Andaman Islands and West Bengal, Myanmar, Thailand and southern China.
Rueda 2005. Zootaxa 941: 1–26.
Name“This species is named with gratitude and affection for Belen P. Rueda, for her encouragement and support.” Belen has been Latinized to belenrae. Formerly Anopheles“unknown sp. Korea” of Wilkerson et al., 2003 (ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequence). Also known as “unknown 1” of Li et al. 2005 (ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequence).
Belen P. Rueda, who prefers to be called Bel, was born in Nagcarlan, Laguna, Philippines on 21 January 1953. She completed her B.S. degree in Chemistry from the Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines in 1976, and her M.S. degree in Pesticide Chemistry from the University of the Philippines at Los Banos (UPLB), Laguna in 1980. She married Leopoldo M. Rueda (Pollie) in Nagcarlan, Laguna on 25 December 1980, by whom she has a daughter. Bel joined her husband in Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A. in 1981 and remained there until 1984, while he pursued his Ph.D. degree at the North Carolina State University (NCSU). In 1984 their only daughter, Caroline, was born in Raleigh. Caroline also completed her B.S. (magna cum laude) and an M.S. degrees from NCSU in 2006 and 2009, respectively. In 2009, she became a medical student at Virginia College of Osteophatic Medicine (VCOM), Blacksburg, Virginia. In 1984, Bel returned to the Philippines when her husband was appointed a faculty member of the UPLB. She worked as a researcher at the International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna (1984–1988), where she conducted research on botanical pesticides to control common insect pests of rice plants. She was able to isolate the active pesticidal component of the ginger plant, Curcuma longa. In 1988, the whole family returned to North Carolina (NC) when her husband, Pollie, joined North Carolina State University as a visiting scientist. She then worked from 1988–2002 in a pharmaceutical company at Research Triangle Park, NC, starting as a chemist, and then becoming a supervisor and finally manager. In 1995, she briefly joined her husband in South Korea, when Pollie was assigned as a medical entomologist/commissioned officer (U.S. Army Captain) in a preventive medicine unit at Taegu. While in Korea, she became a volunteer worker at various religious and charitable organizations. Then in 2002, Bel moved to Maryland and started working as a senior quality assurance supervisor in a pharmaceutical company at Rockville. She still holds this position in the same company which involves the quality control of bulk drug product manufacturing of the company. She lives with her husband at Crownsville (near Annapolis), Maryland. Bel enjoys walking, listening to classical music and traveling.
Specimens were progeny reared from adult females collected in 2001. Adult females can be identified by a combination of characters such as palpomere 3 with a narrow basal pale band, vein Cu2 (vein 5.2) lacks an apical fringe spot, hindtarsomeres 1–4 have pale narrow apical bands and hindtarsomere 4 lacks a basal pale band. Males can be identified by the structure of their genitalia. A combination of minor characters separates the pupae from the nearest species, An. sinensis, An. lesteri and An. belenrae. Fourth instar larvae are identified by a combination of characters such as setae, 2–C (inner clypeal hair), 3–P (outer shoulder hair) and thoracic setae 3–M and 5–M are all simple. The ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequence was determined on this species when it was known as Anopheles“unknown 1” by Li et al. (2005). Nothing is known about the ecology of this species except that adults were collected from cow sheds in two villages having ricefields. Known only from Tongilchon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea and at a dairy farm in an urban area.
White, 1985. Systematic Entomology 10: 501–522. Ward (1992), page 180.
Name“Anopheles bwambae is here proposed as the scientific name for the mosquito hitherto known as species D of the An. gambiae complex.”
Interestingly Gillett (1975) proposed the names haddowi, in recognition of the work of A.J. Haddow in Bwamba on mosquitoes and arboviruses, and the name niansimbii, derived from Niansimbi the goddess of the hot springs associated with the new species. But as Gillett gave no descriptions the names became nomina nuda, which I think is a pity because the name niansimbii seems appropriate for a mosquito whose larval habitats are hot water springs. Bwamba County is a small forested area in the extreme west of Uganda within which is the Semuliki, or Semliki, National Park (220 km2, 670–760 m above sea level), which was made a national park in October 1993. The Park runs along the Democratic Republic of Congo with the Rwenzori mountain to the southeast and with Lake Albert to the north. The park has two hot springs and a mineral encrusted swamp, which attract large numbers of shore birds and is a source of salt for many animals. The vegetation of the Park is medium altitude evergreen and semi deciduous forest; the dominant tree is the muhimbi (Cynometra alexandri). There are more than 400 bird species including the (Melichneutes robustus), the rare forest ground thrush (Turdus oberlaenderi) and Sassi's olive greenbul (Phyllastrephus lorenzi) as well as nine species of hornbills (Bucerotidae). There are over 60 mammalian species including leopards, elephants, eight species of primates, including chimpanzees and mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona), the Ruwenzori sun squirrel (Heliosciurus ruwenzorii), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) and nine species of duikers including the Bay Duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis). There are also about 300 species of butterflies in the park. To virologists and medical entomologists, the Semuliki area is best known for its research on arboviruses and the mosquito vectors. The Ugandan Virus Research Institute (UVRI) was established in 1936 as the Yellow Fever Research Institute by the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1950 it became the East African Virus Research Institute (EAVRI), but in 1977 it came under the Ugandan Government and was renamed the Ugandan Virus Research Institute. During the history of the institute it became the cradle of arbovirus and mosquito research in East Africa. The staff included many famous scientists such as P. S. Corbet, G.W.A. Dick, J. D. Gillett, A.J. Haddow, W.H.R. Lumsden and K.C. Smithburn. Several new viruses were found in Bwamba including one causing Bwamba fever which was first encountered in 1937 amongst construction workers building a new road to Bwamba County, Western Uganda (now called Bundibugyo District). It is caused by a Bunyamwera serotype virus known as BUN virus (Buyanviridae). Uganda infections have been recorded from humans in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania. Species of Aedes, Culex, Mansonia and Anopheles including the An. gambiae species complex are vectors. Semliki Forest virus (Togaviridae) was first isolated from Aedes abnormalis in Buliyama, Bwamba County, Uganda in 1942. Since then, the virus has been found in much of East, West and southern Africa and also in Asia.
The main differences distinguishing An. bwambae from the other eight species in the An. gambiae species complex are chromosomal, such as the presence of break-points of fixed inversion 3La and polymorphic inversions 2R1 and GRb of the karyotype as seen in the ovarian polytene chromosomes. Morphologically there appear to be very few characters that may distinguish this species from others in the complex. Larvae were collected near Burage hot springs in Bwamba County, Toro District of Uganda, where they were found in brackish water from geothermal springs in association with the halophilic culicine species Aedes albocephalus, Ae. natronius and Culex tenagius. Adults are found in the Semliki Forest, but what hosts the females feed upon is unknown. They do enter houses in nearby villages and bite humans avidly. As both malarial sporozoites and developing larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti were found in females G.B. White considered it likely that An. bwambae was contributing to local transmission of malaria and filariasis. Known only from Bwamba County, Uganda.
Wilkerson 1991. Mosquito Systematics 23: 25–38. Ward (1992), page 178.
Name“I am pleased to name this species for Guillermo Calderon Felero: friend, collaborator and highly respected colleague, formerly of the Ministry of Health in Lima, Peru.” Note in this dedication the name should be Falero not Felero.
Guillermo Calderón Falero was born in the town of Chulucanas, Peru on 25 November 1941, son of Luis Calderón R. and Juana Josefa O. Falero, residents in the same town. He completed his primary education at the Juan Palacios School and at the secondary school at the San Ramon in Chulucanas, where he received a scholarship from the Provincial Municipality for being an outstanding student. He joined the Faculty of Biological Sciences of the National University of Trujillo (La Libertad, Peru), where he obtained his Bachelor's degree in 1965, the professional title of Biologist in 1966 and his doctorate in 1976, at the same university. He joined the Ministry of Health working in the National Malaria Eradication (SNEM) – Zone II in 1964, where later he was deployed to Zone III of the National Malaria Eradication Service in Ayacucho, Tarma and Pucallpa. He obtained a scholarship from PAHO/WHO in 1968 to participate in the Course for Malaria Eradication for Professional Personnel in Education, in the Public School of Health in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after which he returned to Pucallpa, from where in 1970 he moved to Lima to be in charge of the National Department of Entomology of the National Malaria Eradication Programme, Ministry of Health. During 1972 he worked in the jungles of Peru (Junin and Loreto) and also in Lima with Dr. James Kitzmiller, who was in the country studying chromosome maps of malaria vectors. Then in 1976, he received another scholarship from PAHO and participated in a Course of Medical Entomology and Epidemiology at the School of Public Health at the University of Sao Paulo, where he was under the tutorage of Dr. Oswaldo P. Forattini. He became an Associate Professor in Epidemiology – Part I-Preventive – in the Faculty of Odontology of the National University Federico Villarreal, between 1982–1983 and 1984–1985, and became a corresponding member of the Institute of Tropical Medicine A. von Humboldt of the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia (1984–1988). From 1985–1986 he served as Principal Investigator of the Vector Mosquito Research Project in the central jungle of Peru under the auspices of the Board of Science for International Development /National Academy of Sciences of the United States (BOSTID/NAS) in coordination with the Research Center of Hugo Lumbreras National Institute of Health and the Institute of Tropical Medicine A. von Humboldt of the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia. He worked with Dr. Jack Hayes, Professor at Texas Tech University and with Dr. Bruce Harrison who at the time was Head of the Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution and the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit in Washington DC. In 1989 he received a Diploma of Merit and a silver medal awarded by the Entomological Society of Peru for 25 years of work devoted to the study of vectors with the emphasis on malaria and Chagas disease. In 1991 he was honored by Dr. Richard Wilkerson, Chairman of the Department of Entomology of the Smithsonian Institution, who named a new species of Anopheles found in Peru with his name, An. calderoni. He has participated in several scientific events in Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama, Colombia, Mexico and the U.S.A. (New Orleans, Bethesda in Maryland, Virginia and Washington). From 1964 to July of 1990 he worked on the control of vectors especially of malaria and dengue but also on vectors of Chagas disease. He has published several scientific papers on the vectors of malaria and Chagas disease. During 1989 and 1999 he was a consultant for research on malaria vectors and their control for the Latin American Center for Tropical Medicine, University of Heidelberg in Ecuador and Peru. He left the Ministry of Health in 1990 with more than 29 years of dedicated and selfless study of mosquito vectors of disease, but continued giving expert advice on vector-borne diseases. For example, in 1998 he worked in Peru for three months as a Short Term Consultant in the Office of General Epidemiology (OGE) in Project VIGA of the Peruvian Ministry Health and USAID serving as a Professor of Applied Entomology advising on the morphology, identification and use of bioassays for evaluating vector control strategies. From 1990–2001, he was a Short-Term Consultant or a Temporary Advisor, for PAHO in Brazil, Bolivia, Santo Domingo, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Ecuador and also with the United Nations Development Programme (PNUD) in Brazil and Santo Domingo to teach basic entomology required for the control of malaria and for the assessment of pesticides used against vectors. From 1999–2007 he was sponsored by Aventis CropScience and Bayer CropScience and the Direction General of Environmental Health (DIGESA) – Ministry of Health of Peru. He worked occasionally as a consultant evaluating resistance of mosquitoes to pesticides, residual space-spraying applications of insecticides, as well as training personnel in vector control. Then, from 2006 to the present (2010) he has been supporting the National Malaria Eradication Service (SNEM) of the Ministry of Health of Ecuador in training professional personnel in basic entomology in the transmission of malaria, dengue, sylvatic fevers such as yellow fever and also on other arboviruses and strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases. In 1967 in the large city of Pucallpa he married Rosa Rengifo Mourao, with whom he had four children. He also has seven grandchildren and he and his wife celebrated 43 years of marriage in 2010.
Anopheles calderoni has in the past been called An. punctimacula Dyar and Knab, which is found on the Pacific side of the Andes in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, and is a known malaria vector. Wilkerson (1990) realized that he had a very similar species that was not An. punctimacula but an undescribed species, now known as An. calderoni. Adults of An. calderoni can be separated from other members of the Arribalzagia Series by a combination of morphological characters. For example female adults have the scutum with 3 distinct dark spots, upper mesepimeron with a small group of pale scales, presence of pale yellow scales and scattered white scales on the posterior wing veins and hindtarsomere 5 usually pale but sometimes with a dark spot. Male adults have 3 pairs of leaflets on the aedeagus of which the first pair are very thin and have a nearly transparent margin. Pupae can be identified by the ratio of the secondary cleft of the trumpet and the pinna being about 0.5. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of characters such as seta 3–C (outer clypeal hair) having only 1–11 branches and a mean of 4.2, while seta 1–X (saddle hair) is not on the saddle. Larvae are found in small streams, irrigation canals and swamps, mostly having dense emergent vegetation such as species of Typha (cattail or bulrush). No information is given on the ecology of the adults. Anopheles calderoni was found only at elevations below 250 m in the departments of Piura, Lima and Ica in Peru, but it possibly occurs in other lowland areas such as in Ecuador and southern Colombia.
Brunhes, le Goff and Geoffroy. 1999. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 15: 552–558.
Name“We dedicate this species to our colleague and friend, Pierre Carnevale, who devotes his research to malaria control in Africa.”
Pierre, Jean, Louis, Carnevale was born on 5 August 1943 in Casablanca, Morocco where he lived until 1960. In Casablanca he attended a primary school before studying for his baccalauréat. Then in Marseille he was at the Aix-Marseille University until 1967 and received, among other qualifications, a special “Diplôme d'Etudes Approfondies” as an ecology option in Entomology. In 1967 he joined the former Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), now known as Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), section of Medical Entomology and Parasitology and had two years training in Paris followed by a month's training in cytogenetics in Mario Coluzzi's laboratory in Rome. After which Pierre had three months training in the medical entomology department of the Centre Muraz Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) of the Organisation de Coordination et de Coopération pour la Lutte contre les Grandes Endémies (OCCGE) Pan African Organization. Then in 1969 he joined the Medical Entomology section of ORSTOM, Brazzaville, where he worked on tsetse flies and Anopheles, mainly on An. caroni, An. nili and An. gambiae. Here he also studied mosquito biology and cytogenetics, malaria parasitology and the dynamics of transmission according to the environment, as well as sickle cell hemoglobinopathy and malaria. In 1972 he received special training on vector genetics. Firstly in Professor J. Kitzmiller's laboratory (Urbana, USA), then the genetics of Aedes species with Professor G.B. Craig (University of Notre Dame, U.S.A.) and finally the cytogenetics of Simulium in Professor Rothfels’ laboratory in Toronto. In 1978 Pierre joined ORSTOM, Bondy, France to write his thesis “Docteur d'Etat” (i.e. to become Professor of the University) and in 1979 he returned to ORSTOM, Brazzaville, as head of a large program on malaria in the different environments of forest (Congo) and savanna and sahel (Burkina Faso). This program involved ORSTOM, the Pasteur Institute, University of Paris VI (Pitié Salpétrière Hospital) and Bordeaux University. In 1981 he became Chief of the newly developed Malaria Unit of the Health Department of ORSTOM and Chief of the Medical Entomology Department of Centre Muraz (Bobo-Dioulasso) of the African organization OCCGE, which encompassed eight West African francophone countries. He and his team worked mainly on vector biology and control in different ecological settings (savanna, sahel, rice fields etc). They were the first to impregnate mosquito nets with pyrethroid insecticides (permethrin) and to evaluate their entomological impact in experimental huts. They were also the first to undertake an epidemiological evaluation of insecticide treated nets (ITNs), impregnated with deltamethrin, and noticed a 90% reduction of transmission and a 50%¨reduction in malaria morbidity among children. Special training in ITNs and malariology based on Pierre's field experience was then undertaken in Bobo-Dioulasso. He then undertook several entomological surveys in other countries such as Benin, Togo, Mali, and Niger. In 1987 he was assigned to Yaoundé, Cameroon, Organisation de Coopération et de Coordination pour la lutte contre les grandes endémies en Afrique centrale (OCEAC), incorporating five francophone countries and the Spanish-speaking Equatorial Guinea, where he and colleagues established an entomology department. Main studies dealt with ITNs in several settings, the influence of large rivers on malaria transmission dynamics, the biology of An. moucheti etc. Several entomological surveys were undertaken from this entomology department which also developed comprehensive training. The first African center for ITNs was established in Douala under the leadership of the first Cameroonian Ph.D., Dr. Etienne Fondjo. This Yaoundé medical entomology department is now one of the largest in Central Africa. In 1992 Pierre was recruited for four years by WHO and was involved in the large International Amsterdam Conference (where a new Global Malaria Control Strategy was adopted), but also with several ITN programs in different countries (Tigray, Niger etc.), as well as training and field surveys. He has also worked in refugee camps in the Goma area, Democratic Republic of Congo, to prepare and implement a large body louse control project for preventing typhus outbreaks. In 1997 he returned to Africa and became Director of the Pierre Richet Institute of the OCCGE, stationed in Bouaké, Ivory Coast. Here there were studies on other vector-borne diseases such as sleeping sickness and onchocerciasis but the main input was on insecticide impregnated bed nets. For the first time there was an ITN program in an area where the An. gambiae populations had a high frequency of insecticide resistance, due to kdr gene frequency. Despite this, lambdacyhalothrin-treated nets gave 50% reduction in the incidence of malaria among children. The first evaluation was also made using long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) i.e. Olyset nets, in areas where An. gambiae also had high levels of the kdr gene. Numerous studies were undertaken for the West Africa Rice Development Organization (WARDA-ADRAO) on the effects that environmental modifications for rice cultivation had on the biology of mosquito vectors, malaria transmission and morbidity. While in Bouaké he was involved in many field surveys in OCEAC as well as other countries such as refugee camps in Sierra Leone. He retained close contact with WHO and built two field stations having experimental huts for research on control of resistant or susceptible vectors in the framework of WHOPES phase II evaluation. After spending 26 years in Africa Pierre was assigned to the Centre ORSTOM-IRD of Montpellier in the Laboratory for Vector Control (WHO Collaborative Center) where he developed a program of vector biology and control in Lobito, Angola, in the medical service of the Acergy Institution and the National Malaria Control Program. He and his colleagues were the first to record the presence of Aedes albopictus on the Island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea), and the presence of kdr Anopheles gambiae populations in the center of Guinea-Conakry. During his career he wrote, with colleagues, some 200 publications and served as a WHO expert on Vector Biology and Control, was a member of International Health Regulations, and was also vice-president of the French expert group on biocides (including repellents). In 2007 he received the “Médaille Vermeil de la Santé Publique” of Niger and in 2008 was honored as “Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur” and then finished his official career as “Directeur de Recherches de Classe Exceptionnelle” the highest degree from of ORSTOM/IRD. Although he retired in 2003, Pierre has kept very active teaching (International Masters on Tropical Diseases of Valencia, Spain etc), training, undertaking field work (Angola), attending WHO meetings and writing, with his colleagues, a French book on Anopheles. Pierre married Nicole in 1973 in Brazzaville; they had Nicolas (1973), Sandrine (1975) then Guillaume (1985). Pierre tells me that his children did not want to become entomologists as they were fed up with their father talking all the time about mosquitoes. However, grandchildren Hugo and Clément seem to be fascinated by insects so the Carnevale name could still in the future be linked to entomology.
Because of widespread reports of morphological, ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by An. nili, going back to F.W. Edwards in 1912 and A.M. Evans in 1938, Brunhes and colleagues believed that An. nili was a species complex. It seems that such a complex comprises An. nili s. str., the pale “Congo form” of An. nili and the zoophagic An. somalicus. Based on mosquitoes collected sympatrically with An. nili in the Ivory Coast which exhibited taxonomic differences to typical An. nili s. str. resulted in An. carnevalei being described as a new species in the An. nili species complex. Females of An. carnevalei can be distinguished by the abundance of pale spots on the wing veins, especially in having a large white prebasal spot on the costa and basal parts of vein R1 and by the pattern of white spots on other veins. Males and immature stages are unknown. Like An. nili s. str. in West Africa this species is anthropophagic and possibly a malaria vector. Found in the Ivory Coast and Cameroon. The authors suggest that pale forms attributed to An. nili from Sierra Leone, Ghana and Nigeria (Gillies and De Meillon, 1968) could be related to An. carnevalei.
Ma, Su-fang 1981b. Sinozoologica 1: 59–70. (In Chinese, very short summary in English). Ward (1992), page 178.
Name Neither the original Chinese paper nor an anonymous English translation found on the Internet indicated the origin of the name changfus. Sadly, Ma died in about 2007 and so cannot help explain the derivation of the name of this species. However, Dr. Yiau-Min Huang says “chang-fus” are two Chinese characters, and as pronounced, mean “the long float, and wide deck type of eggs,” clearly referring to the morphology of the eggs of An. changfus.
Anopheles changfus is a member of the An. sinensis species group. Morphologically it is said to resemble An. sinensis and An. dazhaius but could be identified by a combination of characters such as adults having a large pale spot and a large dark spot behind the dark scales at the base of vein 5, and by the remigium being mostly dark scaled and the presence of one pale spot at the base of the costa. Adult males were identified by the shape of the aedeagus, and eggs by their wide deck. There is no mention of the morphology of the pupae or fourth instar larvae. Little information is presented on the ecology of this species but adults apparently feed on domesticated animals and commonly rest in barns, although they occasionally enter houses and feed on people. Found in Sichuan Province, China. Qu and Zhu (2008) reported that Miao et al. (1988) had shown by cross hybridization experiments that An. changfus was considered a synonym of An. sinensis.
Brunhes, le Goff and Geoffroy. 1997. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 33: 173–183.
Name Although not stated this species is clearly named after the Comoros islands.
The archipelago of the Comoros Islands comprise four major islands, namely Grande Comore (Ngazidja), Mohéli (Mwali), Anjouan (Nzwani) and Mayotte (Mahoré) all at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel of the western Indian Ocean some 12 degrees south of the equator and less than 303 km from the coast of northern Mozambique. The islands were formed by volcanic activity of the seabed of the Western Indian Ocean. The area of the four islands is about 2,235 km2, much of the land is just above sea level, the highest point is La Karthala volcano at 2,361 m, and the latest eruption was on 12 January 2007. The capital city of the islands is Moroni on Grande Comore. The population of the islands is about 798,000 making it one of the most densely populated countries in sub-Saharan Africa. There are few natural resources on the islands due to its volcanic soil, agriculture consists of subsistence farming and production of vanilla and cloves. The official languages are Comorian (mixture of Swahili and Arabic), Arabic and with French mainly spoken in Mayotte. The Comoros Islands were frequented by travelers from Africa, Madagascar, Indonesia and Arabia before the first Europeans encountered the islands. Arabic influence was strong. Later the islands were an important stopover for shipping between eastern Africa and the East. In 1843 France colonized Mayotte and by 1904 had annexed the remainder of the archipelago. In 1974, a referendum showed that 95% of the mainly Islamic populations of three islands voted for independence and in 2001 were granted their own presidents and greater autonomy. However, the people of Mayotte, with its Christian majority, voted to remain under French administration as an overseas collectivity, and in 2011 Mayotte will probably become an overseas department of France. There are about 151 bird species, of which 16 are endemic. Endangered mammals include Livingstone's flying fox (Pteropus livingstonni), which is the largest bat on the islands, and the endangered mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz). There are also at least five species of endemic butterflies and four endangered species of orchids and six endangered species of palms. An abundance of sea life surrounds the islands including whales, sharks, manta rays (Manta biriostris), sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), sunfish (Mola mola), and dugongs (Dugong dugong) which are classified as a vulnerable species. There are also lobsters, crabs, shrimps, coral reefs, extensive sandy beaches and fresh water streams. Unfortunately endemic and rare species of animals and plants have suffered greatly from introduced animals and plants since the arrival of humans on the islands, including domesticated animals as well as rats, mice, cockroaches and other insects, giant African snails (Achatina fulica), guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and invasive plants such as the golden alyssum (Aurinia saxatilis). Introduction of new species can drastically change the ecosystem of the islands. More recent introductions include mongeese (Herpestidae), house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the common myna (Acridotheres tristis) which has become the most common bird on Comoros. The Comoros island became worldwide news when on 20 December 1952 a coelocanth (Latimeria chalumnae) was caught by Comorian fishermen in the seas around the Comoros islands. This was only the second coelacanth to be caught, the first specimen being found off the east coast of South Africa on 22 December 1938. Previous to these finds, the coelocanth was considered to have been extinct since the Cretaceous period.
Only the female of An. comorensis is known. It appears to be a species that is closely related to the An. gambiae species complex. Adult females are distinguished from other species by the much smaller size of the subapical dark spot on the costa and the abundance of large scales on the scutal fossa. Ornamentation is similar to that of An. salbaii but can be distinguished by the absence of scales on the abdominal tergites and by the presence of a ring of white scales only at the apices of tarsomeres 1–4. Little is known about the ecology of this species except that females bite humans. Found only on Mayotte, Comoros archipelago.
Sallum and Peyton 2005. pp.165–170. In Sallum, Peyton and Wilkerson. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19: 158–199.
Name“The name cracens is Latin for neat, graceful.” Formerly known as An. dirus B of Hii (1984).
Most members of the An. dirus species complex were first recognized as distinct species by crossing experiments, cytogenetics (chromosome banding patterns), alloenzyme data and later by DNA probes and DNA hybridization. Then in the 1990s to 2002, DNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has further helped to differentiate species in the An. dirus species complex. Only after these studies were the new species formerly named. See Sallum et al. in the paper cited above for detailed discussion and references. Adult females of An. cracens can be identified by a combination of characters such as the pale and dark scaling on the palps, wings and legs. Pupae are more difficult to separate from other members of the An. dirus species complex but the genital lobe being constricted in the middle seems a promising diagnostic character. Fourth instar larvae can be recognized by a combination of characters such as the pigmentation of sclerotized structures being very light brown, a pale tan or pale straw yellow and by the length and number of branches of various setae on the head and thorax. Larvae have been collected in Thailand from elephant and other animal footprints exposed to the sun or in partial shade in secondary rainforest in both the plains and mountains. Adults bite humans in both villages and secondary tropical rain forests. Anopheles cracens is considered likely to be a malaria vector, and possibly a vector of the simian parasite, Plasmodium cynomolgi. Found from Thailand to west Malaysia and Sumatra.
Coetzee 1994. Mosquito Systematics 26: 125–131.
Name“Named from the term “cryptic” which is used commonly in anopheline literature to indicate species that are virtually indistinguishable morphologically.”
In 1983, Maureen Coetzee published a paper showing that polytene chromosomes and cross mating experiments gave good evidence of a sibling species in southern Africa that was very similar to An. coustani. In 1987 both Coetzee and Gillies considered that there was still insufficient evidence to name a new species. This was partially because of the small numbers of the potential new species available and also the lack of information concerning whether the new, but as yet unnamed species, or An. coustani occurred at the type location. In 1900, Laveran, of malaria fame, described specimens sent to him by Dr. Coustan of Montpellier that had been collected by Dr. Rasamimanana from swamps in Madagascar, but the exact location was not given. At about the same time (1901 nec 1900), De Grandpré and De Charmoy described An. mauritianus from Mauritius and Réunion. In 1902, Dye compared specimens from both collections and concluded that the two species, An. coustani and An. mauritianus, were very similar if not identical. In 1932, after some detective work, Senevet concluded that the name An. coustani had priority over An. mauritianus and after re-examining the adult females that Dye had studied concluded they were the same species. There has also been confusion over the type locality of An. coustani. Laveran in 1900 stated that his specimens were from Madagascar but gave no further information, but Dye in 1902 and Christophers in 1924 quoted the Madagascan town of Tananarive (Antananarivo) as the type locality. In 1966 Grejbine in his monograph of Madagascan anophelines cited “Madagascar, unknown swamp” as the type locality. But it then becomes even more confusing, because in 1938 Evans had stated that type specimens of An. coustani were from Réunion and this location was repeated in 1947 by De Meillon, in 1968 by De Meillon and Gillies, and by the Catalog of the Culicidae by Knight and Stone in 1977 while White in 1980 gave the type location as “Réunion.” But the earlier 1959 edition of the Catalog of Stone, Knight and Starcke gave the type locality correctly as just Madagascar. It would seem that Evans in her book on African mosquitoes in 1938 made the error of stating the type locality was Réunion, and this was then perpetuated by many later authors. [References to publications cited above are in Coetzee (1994).]
Eggs and adults of An. crypticus are indistinguishable from those of An. coustani and there are only minor taxonomic differences in the pupae and fourth instar larvae. But this new species can be separated from An. coustani by the fixed chromosomal inversion Xa and the polymorphic inversion 3Rab. This new species is known only from South Africa. I might add that the publication of Maureen Coetzee (1994) makes fascinating reading on the confusion of the type locality of An. coustani and demonstrates how an error made many years ago can be perpetuated by later mosquito experts.
Phan, Manh, Hinh and Vien 1991. Mosquito Systematics 22: 145–148. Ward (1992), page 178.
Name Although not stated, it seems that this species was named after the national park of Cuc-Phuong, the type locality of the new species, and then Latinized.
Cuc-Phuong in northern Vietnam became a forest reserve in 1960 and a national park in 1962. It was consecrated by President Ho Chi Minh. Cuc-Phuong National Park covers 22,200 ha and is situated in the foothills of the northern Annamite Mountains. The Park has lush valleys and mountains with elevations ranging from 150 m to 656 m at the summit of May Bac Mountain (Silver Cloud Mountain). The Park is 120 km from Hanoi. Some 7,000–12,000 years ago Cuc-Phuong was already populated and several artefacts have been found, such as stone axes, bone spears and human graves have been found in caves. In 1789, the Quen Voi section of the park was the site of an historic civil war between Nguyen Hue and Thanh Long. The Park has an extremely rich flora with some 1,980 vascular plant species including many Euphorbiaceae, Orchidacea and Poaceae. Three species, namely Pistacia cucphuongensis, Melastoma trungii and Heritiera cucphuongeniis are found only in Cuc-Phuong National Park. There is a great diversity of animals, including 97 mammalian species and a rich fauna of primates with at least four species of endangered and endemic langurs (Trachypithecus species), the black giant squirrel (Ratufa bicolor) and several species of flying squirrels (Hylopetes species). Overhunting and environmental changes have resulted in the extinction of the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), wild dogs or dhole (Cuon alpinus), and the tiger. There are about 313 bird species, including rare endemic species such as the pied falconet (Microhierax melanoleucos), eared pitta (Pitta phayrei) and the limestone wren babbler (Napothera crispifrons). There are also 36 species of reptiles and 17 amphibian species and at least 280 butterfly species. In 1993 the Cuc- Phuong Endangered Primate Rescue Center was established, and in 1998 the Cuc-Phuong Turtle Conservation Center was also established. These two centers carry out vital biological research and breeding programs and rehabilitate animals rescued from the illegal wildlife trade. The fossilized remains of an Ichthyosaura, an ancient sea-dwelling dinosaur, were recently found, and was the first discovery of its kind in Vietnam. The Park is one of the most popular nature tourist destinations in Vietnam.
Mosquito larvae collected in the Cuc-Phuong National Park in northern Vietnam in 1981 were found to have unusual features, and so adults were reared and found to represent a new species. In several respects this new species, An. cucphuongensis, is taxonomically close to An. alongensis and consequently the Anopheles alongensis species group was created. Female adults of An. cucphuongensis can be identified by many characters, such as the lack of pale spots on the wings, uniformly dark legs, and number and arrangement of the setae and or scales on the head and scutum as well as the shape of the palps. The male genitalia of An. cucphuongensis are similar to those of An. alongensis, but they have more leaflets (10–20 on one side) on the apex of the aedeagus which are serrated along the edges. Pupae have seta 9 on segment VIII with 9–20 branches, paddle has small lateral serrations and a long dense fringe on the lateral and mesal borders, and seta 1–P is very long and filiform with a hooked tip. Fourth instar larvae can be differentiated from those of An. alongensis by several characters such the very long simple and widely separated inner clypeal setae, and by the shape and arrangement of the antennal setae. Characteristics of the eggs are unknown. There is little information on the ecology of this species but larval habitats of An. cucphuongensis and An alongensis consist of freshwater rock holes. Larvae of An. alongensis were found in a shaded area at the bottom of a rock cave while larvae of An. cucphuongensis were found in shaded rock clefts in the forest. Adults of neither of these two species seem to be vectors of disease to humans. This species is only known from Ha-Long Bay, adjacent to Hai-Phong, Cuc-Phuong Park in Vietnam.
Linton, Nicolescu and Harbach 2004. pp. 530–535. In Nicolescu, Linton, Vladimirescu, Howard and Harbach. Bulletin of Entomological Research 94: 525–535.
Name“The specific name daciae is taken from the Latin name (Daciaiae, feminine) for the country corresponding principally to modern Romania.”
Dacia was a land inhabited by the Dacians, it stretched from the Carpathian Mountains and was bordered by the River Danube and the Balkan Mountains to the south. Essentially it corresponds to the present day countries of Romania and Moldova. Dacia was most influenced by the Romans and Ancient Greeks and a Dacian Kingdom of fluctuating size existed from 82 BC until the Roman conquest in 106 AD. The capital of Dacia was Sarmizegethusa, located in modern Romania, but it was destroyed by the Romans although its name was added to a new Roman city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built to serve as the capital of the Roman Province of Dacia. The main industries of the Dacians were agriculture, bee-keeping and honey production, vineyards, livestock, ceramics and metal work. The Roman Province of Facia is represented on the Roman coin (Sestertius) by a woman sitting on a rock holding small child on her knee who holds ears of grain, and other child sitting before her holding grapes. The Goths mounted several attacks on Dacia eventually driving out the Romans and restoring the independence of Dacia in AD 75. Much later, in about AD 336, Constantine the Great reconquered the province but after his death the Romans abandoned Dacia for good. This was the first occupied territory to be abandoned by the Roman Empire. On the 24 January 1862 the name Romania was officially established with the capital city being Bucharest in Wallachia.
Adult mosquitoes of the An. maculipennis species group resting in animal shelters were collected in Romania between March 2000 and June 2003 in five widely separated sites and 2097 specimens were identified by molecular procedures. In one group of 178 specimens sequences from the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear rDNA locus were compared with the GenBank sequences for the nine recognized Palaearctic species of the An. maculipennis species group. In addition 119 specimens were identified using an ITS2 PCR-RFLP assay developed during the authors’ investigation. Five of the nine An. maculipennis species group were identified namely, An atroparvus, An. maculipennis s. str, An. melanoon, An. messeae and the previously unknown new species, An. daciae, which was collected in the Black Sea coastal region of plains adjacent to the Danube River in southern Romania. No reliable morphological differences were found in adults, fourth instar larvae and pupae of An. daciae, An. messeae, An. maculipennis and An. sacharovi. The pupae of An. melanoon and An. persiensis were also studied, but again there were no morphological differences. The eggs of An. daciae most closely resemble those of An. messeae but they are usually smaller and have patches of larger deck tubercles that contrast more sharply with patches of smaller tubercles which results in an enhanced definition to the mottled surface of the deck. Anopheles daciae morphologically is most similar to An. messeae but can be distinguished from that species by unique nuclear ITS2 and mitochondrial COI DNA sequences. Apart from collecting adult An. daciae from animal shelters little else is known about the ecology of the species as the immature stages were obtained from progeny of wild caught adults. It is likely that in addition to Romania this species will be found in other localities in eastern Europe and the Balkan States.
Ma, Su-fang, 1981b. Sinozoologica 1: 59–70. (In Chinese, very short English summary). Ward (1992), page 178.
Name Neither the original Chinese paper nor an anonymous English translation found on the internet indicated the origin of the name dazhaius. Sadly Ma died in about 2007 and so cannot help explain the derivation of the name of this species. However, Dr. Yiau-Min Huang says that “da zhius” are two Chinese characters and as pronounced mean a very narrow deck type eggs. This clearly refers to the form of the eggs of this species.
Anopheles dazhaius is a mosquito in the An. sinensis species group. It very closely resembles both An. kweiyangensis and An. anthropophagus, but apparently adult males can be distinguished by the shape of the leaflets of the aedeagus while eggs differ by the narrower shape of the deck. Little is known about the ecology of this species but larvae are found in cool clean waters shaded by emergent plants. Females are anthropophagic. It is believed that An. dazhaius is probably an important vector of both filariasis and malaria in Sichuan Province, China. Qu and and Zhu (2008) reported that Miao et al. (1988) had shown by cross hybridization experiments that An. dazhaius should be considered a junior synonym of An. anthropophagus.
Rosa-Freitas 1989. Memóris Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 84: 535–543. Ward (1992), page 183.
Name“The name of this species is given in homage to Professor Leônidas W. Deane and Maria P. Deane who, in the late 1940s, while working in Guajará-Mirim, Rondônia state, first observed populations with those differential characters (Deane et al., 1948).” [When naming this species as An. deaneorum, see above, there was a typographical error resulting in incorrect initials for the name Leônidas de Mello Deane, as Leônidas W. Deane].
Leônidas de Mello Deane was born on 18 March 1914 in Belém do Pará, the son of Leônard Eustace Deane and Helvétia de Mello Deane. He graduated in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of Pará in 1935, and entered the institute as Professor of Microbiology in 1936. At the same time he also served as a parasitologist at the Northern Institute of Experimental Pathology. This institute was later named the Special Service of Public Health and is currently the Evandro Chagas Institute. At this institute Leônidas Deane became part of the team, led by Evandro Chagas, whose pioneering studies on visceral leishmaniasis and other rural endemic diseases are a landmark in Brazilian Parasitology. In 1939 he joined the Malaria Service of the Northeast, participating in the control of the introduced malaria vector Anopheles gambiae which had invaded northeastern Brazil in the 1930s, causing about 200,000 malaria cases in 1938. After the vector had been eradicated in 1942 Leônidas left to join the Central Laboratory of the Special Service of Public Health in Belém working as a parasitologist from 1942–1949. In 1940 he married Maria José von Paumgartten, also a scientist whose professional career developed alongside that of her husband. From 1945–1946 he was in the U.S.A. where he obtained a master's degree in Public Health at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, and then attended courses of general entomology and human parasitology at the University of Michigan. Returning to Brazil he became head of the Entomology Laboratory of the Institute of Malariology in Rio de Janeiro, which was linked to the Special Service of Public Health. In March 1953, at the invitation of Samuel Pessoa to teach parasitology, he moved to São Paulo to join the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo. He was firstly Assistant Professor (1953–1956). After defending his thesis “Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Studies on reservoirs and vectors in the state of Ceará” (1956–1958), he became Livre Docente (equivalent to the ‘Habilitation’ title in Germany) from 1959–1962, and then Associate Professor (1962–1970). In 1966 he was at the University of Carabobo in Valencia, Venezuela where he became a visiting professor of parasitology. In the 1960's, Professor Deane played a prominent role in medical and scientific research organizations, such as the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A., the Pan American Health Organization, and the World Health Organization. At the WHO in 1964 he participated in a study on simian malaria that took him to Panama, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Switzerland and England. Still at the WHO he served as international expert on parasitic diseases (1964–1980, and 1985) becoming a member of the Scientific Group on Malaria Parasitology (1968), he was also on the Committee of Advisers on Medical Research (1974–1977) and a temporary consultant in tropical diseases (1978–1979). In the 1970's he became Professor of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine of Northern Paraná, Brazil, and visiting scientist at Imperial College near Ascot, England, and also Professor of Parasitology at the Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil (1971–1973). In 1968 Leônidas’ only daughter, Luiza, as well as many others, were forced to leave Brazil because of their political activities that were not tolerated by the military government that had come to power in a coup in March 1964. As a consequence, Leônidas and Maria left Brazil to accompany their daughter in exile in Venezuela. This self-imposed exile took them back to the University of Carabobo, in Venezuela (1976–1979) after a brief period at the Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine of Lisbon, Portugal (1975). In 1980 after the amnesty they could return to Brazil. Leônidas was invited by José Rodrigues Coura, Vice President of Research at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, to join this institute as a senior research scientist and Head of the Department of Entomology of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. In 1990 he had, by law, to retire but he continued working as Head of the Haematozoan Vectors Laboratory. Leônidas died on 30 January 1993, aged 79. The above account is based on an English translation of an on-line obituary in Portuguese by Ricardo Lourenço de Oliveira.
In 1984, studies began on what had been known as the An. albitarsis species complex. Populations from nine Brazilian localities were compared with specimens from the type locality of Baradero, Argentina, using both classical morphology and isoenzymes. Morphological differences from An. albitarsis were found only in specimens collected from Guajará-Mirim, Rondônias State, and Rio Branco (Acre State), both exhibiting the same morphological differences. Guajará-Mirim was selected as the type locality of An. deaneorum because it was the first place that morphological differences separating it from An. albitarsus were found. Female adults can be identified by a combination of characters such as the paler color of the cuticula and wings, and by having a posterior-lateral tuft of scales on abdominal tergum IV or V, but not on tergum III. Adult males have a slender gonostylus with a row of minute setae on the inner surface and the aedeagus is cylindrical and lacks both setae and scales. Pupae have a round spot on either side of the dorsal surface of the metathorax and the paddle is almost twice as large as segment VIII. Fourth instar larvae of An. deanorum can be distinguished morphologically from those of An. albitarsis by having a branched seta 3–C (outer clypeal hair). Isoenzymes using agarose gel electrophoresis techniques when applied to the larvae show clear diagnostic differences. Larval habitats are similar to those of An. albitarsis, namely sunlit ground waters such as pools and ponds. Females of An. deaneorum bite humans both indoors and out of doors as well as domestic animals. There is no evidence that this species is a malaria vector as is An. albitarsis. Known in Brazil from Guajará-Mirim, Rondônia State and Rio Branco, Acre state.
Reinert, 1997 pp. 11–15. In Reinert, Kaiser and Seawright. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 13 (Supplement): 1–102.
Name“The species name diluvialis is of Latin origin and refers to the habitat of this species, i.e., intermittently flooded swamps.” I believe the Latin word referred to is diluvies. Formerly An. quadrimaculatus species C of Cockburn and Seawright (1988).
This species is in the An. quadrimaculatus species complex which comprises five species, namely An. quadrimaculatus s. str. and four new species An. diluvialis, An. inundatus, An. maverlius and An. smaragdinus. The types of An. diluvialis were reared from a single F1 progeny of a female. Adult females can be identified by a combination of character such as the upper proepisternum usually having 7–26 setae, tibiae I and II with dark scales and the dorsocentral area usually having piliform scales on the anterior margin. The genitalia of males cannot be reliably distinguished from that of An. inundatus. Pupae can usually be identified by a combination of mainly setal characters such as seta 1–VII usually 0.75 or less the length of tergum VIII, and the total number of branches for both seta 10–CT is usually 2–5. Fourth instar larvae can also usually be identified by a combination of setal characters such as both seta 8–II together with both seta 9–II with 18–25 branches, and both seta 2–I and both seta 9–I with 16–24 branches. Taxonomic keys are presented for the identification of adults, pupae and larvae which also give percentages of the reliability of taxonomic characters used in identifying An. diluvialis. There are also tentative keys that appear to identify the eggs, but sample sizes were small. Electrophoretic methods seemed superior to polytene chromosomes in distinguishing the five species in the An. quadrimaculatus species complex. A biochemical key is given that identifies adult An. diluvialis. Larvae were found in temporary pools in swamps of hardwood hammocks on the Florida Gulf Coast after regional flooding which inundated lowland areas adjacent to rivers. Adults were collected from tree holes, from under bridges, and from under the eaves of buildings. Eggs can withstand drying for several days or more, and in the laboratory up to four weeks. Found in the southwestern part of Magnolia Camp, Manatee Springs State Park. The nearest town being Chieflands, Levy County, Florida.
Rattanarithikul and Harbach 1990. Mosquito Systematics 22: 160–183. Ward (1992), p. 180.
Name“The name given to this species is a Latin adjective: dispar, unlike, dissimilar, unequal.” Formerly Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus of Baisas 1974.
Anopheles dispar is a species of the An. maculatus species complex. Polytene chromosomes of An. dispar are unlike those of An. greeni, a closely related species. However, as the authors point out such differences in their chromosomes does not necessarily prove genetic isolation because their chromosomes were observed in allopatric populations. Nevertheless the authors were able to correlate distinctive morphological traits with each of the two cytotypes which allowed them to distinguish two morphotypes from single localities. This was interpreted as showing that the two forms were reproductively isolated species. As a consequence they described two new species, An. dispar and An. greeni. However, these two species and also An. maculatus are not easily distinguished. For example, in adults about 57% of adult An. dispar resemble An. maculatus in lacking an accessory sector pale spot on the costa and subcosta. However, like An. greeni the pupae and larvae are conspicuously different from those of An. maculatus. Anopheles greeni and An. dispar are taxonomically very similar in all life stages (eggs not studied) and there may be difficulties in correctly identifying them because of overlap of certain morphological characters. However, there appear to be chromosomal differences that help separate An. dispar from An. greeni and An. maculatus. Larvae occur in ditches, seepage-springs, small streams and rock pools. Adults were collected biting carabao (Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) which is a domesticated subspecies of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and is the National animal of the Philippines. Anopheles dispar seems to be endemic to the Philippines and specimens were collected from several sites from Luzon in the north to Mindanao in the south.
Brunhes, le Goff and Geoffroy. 1999. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 15: 552–558.
Name Not stated but clearly named after the coastal town of Duala in Cameroon.
Duala is the largest city in and the capital of Cameroon's . The city is located on the banks of the , the two sides being linked by the . In 2008 Duala had a population of close to 3,000,000. Duala has become the commercial capital of the country. It has the country's largest airport and the largest sea port, both of which serve the country's major exports such as oil, cocoa, coffee, timber, metals and fruit. Cameroon borders the Bight of Benin between equatorial Guinea and Nigeria. An old rhyme says: Beware, beware the Bight of the Benin, for few come out though many go in. Apparently this refers to a or sea the risk of malaria in the Bight. The Portugese explored present-day Cameroon in the late 15th century. Later in the 17th century merchants from Europe, especially Portugal, established trading stations along the coast buying slaves, ivory and rubber, but later British traders became common, with Germany and Britain exploring further inland. Then in 1884 the Germans established a protectorate over Duala, but in 1916 Anglo-French forces invaded the protectorate and in 1919 an area contiguous with Nigeria was assigned to Britain while the larger eastern part was given to France under the League of Nations Mandate. In 1961 the United Nations sponsored a plebiscite in British Cameroon, a result of which was that Southern Cameroon joined the former French Cameroon to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon in October 1961, while the largely Muslim northern two-thirds of Cameroon joined Nigeria. The Peak area near Duala is one of the three areas having the world's highest annual precipitation, namely rainfall in excess of 10,000 mm (400 in). Although Duala is the largest town in Cameroon, the Capital is Yaoundé, some 200 km east from Duala. The nearby Mount Cameroon is the highest mountain at 4,027 m (13,212 ft) in sub-Saharan Africa and remains an active volcano, the last eruptions occurred on March 28, 1999 and May 28, 2000. The Victorian English explorer, the remarkable Mary H. Kingsley (1862–1900), was in 1895 one of the first Europeans to climb the mountain (Kingsley, 1897). In 1986 large volumes of volcanic carbon dioxide gas erupted from the crater Lake Nyos about 322 km north of and suffocated some 1,700 people within 25 km of the lake, mostly rural villagers, as well as 3,500 livestock. The main commercial crops are coffee, cacao, tobacco, cotton and bananas. Timber, mostly mahogany, teak and ebony, are traditionally valuable exports. There is also revenue from aluminium, bauxite, gas and oil. Cameroon has a rich and diverse flora and fauna with many endemic species. For example there are seven bird species that are endemic, such as the Bamenda apalis (Apalis bamendae), white-throated mountain babbler (Kupeornis gilberti), Bannerman's weaver (Ploceus bannermani) and the extremely rare Bannerman's turaco (Tauraco bannermani). [David Armitage Bannerman was one of the world's most respected ornithologists and of his many publication the most famous is his Birds of Tropical West Africa. I had the pleasure of meeting him in Cameroon in 1956 and saw him and his very skilful Cameroonian colleague prepare and stuff birds for study and also to deposit in museums. Bannerman died at the age of 93 in 1972. In addition to birds, 11 species of mice and shrews are endemic such as Eisentraut's striped mouse (Hybomys eisentrauti) and the Oku mouse shrew (Myosorex okuensis). Several primates are endangered, such as the endemic Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli), the Preuss's red colobus (Pilocolobus preussi) and the common chimpanzee, all mainly due to loss of habitat. There are also nine species of reptiles and 40 species of amphibians that are endemic to the ecoregion.
Type material of An. dualaensis consists of four larval pelts collected by J. Mouchet in December 1963 from Duala, Cameroon. Although there were no adults or any other stages the presence of larval characters, such as a very well developed mesopleural basal spine, numerous accessory plates on both the thorax and abdomen, and leaflets of palmate hairs being lanceolate and lacking any serrations were sufficiently different from other known Anopheles species to justify naming a new species. It appears that An. dualensis is probably a member of the Neomyzomyia series close to the ardensis section. No information is available on the ecology of this species. Known only from Duala, Cameroon.
Brunhes, le Goff and Bousses 2003. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 39: 179–185.
Name“Cette espèce est dédiée à notre collègue et ami Jean-Pierre Eouzan qui dirigeait cette prospection entomolgique.”
Dr. Jean-Pierre Eouzan was born on the 18 June 1935. He obtained his bachelor of science degree from the University of Rennes. From 1961–1963 he did his military service rising to the rank of Lieutenant of the Reserves. From 1963–1965 he became an ORSTOM student in medical entomology at Bondy, north east of Paris, and also at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, where he obtained the Certificate de 3rd cycle in entomology. This consisted of a five year postgraduate study and then a thesis equivalent to a Ph. D. In September 1965, he was assigned to the Pasteur Institute in Cameroon, where he began a research program on arboviruses in the forests of southern Cameroon followed by ecological studies on Aedes africanus in the western mountainous areas. He also investigated the role of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti as vectors of yellow fever. In addition, he studied the vertical distribution of several mosquito species as well as the dispersal of Ae. africanus and Simulium damnosum s. l. From 1968–1974 he described, usually together with colleagues, eight new species of Eretmapodites from Cameroon; in 1975 another new species, Er. eouzani, was named in his honor. In 1971 Jean-Pierre began his investigations on tsetse flies as vectors of trypanosomiasis, first in Cameroon and then in Chad, Gabon, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo. He mainly focussed on control strategies and trapping techniques for adult tsetse flies. Later he studied the ecology of tsetse species in the Ivory Coast as well as their control. From 1978–1983 he was stationed in ORSTOM in Brazzaville and studied the biology and control of tsetse flies, especially along the Congo river and in the region of Niari-Bouenza in south-east Congo. In 1981 while in Brazzaville he became Director of Research. In 1994 he published a paper on the biology and dispersal of the vectors (Chyrsops species) of loiasis (Loa loa) in a forested Cameroon village. From 1983–1989 he was at the Institute de Research sur la Trypanosomiasis et Onchocerciasis (IRTO) in Bouaké and from 1985–1989 he became the Director of the center which became the Institut Pierre Richet. He became joint Director with B. Philippon of the Department of Health at ORSTOM. In 1993–1999, he was the head of the department of medical entomology in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Then in 1999 and 2000, he was in Paris at the newly formed Départment de l'Expertise et de la Valorisation. I believe that from 1967–2005 he published 68 scientific papers, mostly on trypanosomiasis, mosquitoes and arboviruses, but his last paper in 2005 was on the isolation of West Nile Virus from vertebrates and the vector Culex modestus in the Camargue near Rhone. On 15 April 1981, Pierre married Louise Dika Kinguè and had three girls, Amy born in 1978, Jeanne born in 1994 and Eleonore born in 1996. He finally retired on 18 June 2000 to live with his wife and family in Cameroon.
Anopheles eouzani is described from an adult female, one pupa and pupal exuviae and two third instar larvae. Females are morphologically similar to An. deemingi and the larvae cannot be distinguished from those of that species. Pupae also resemble those An. deemingi but do not have the very dark brown cephalothoracic wing cases as found in An. deemingi. Adults of An. eouzani can be distinguished from other similar species by the costal vein having a humeral pale spot, the arrangements of other pale spots on the wing veins, and by the pale scaling of tarsomere 2–III. Very little is known about the biology or ecology of this species, but larvae have been collected from small pools of clear and fresh water formed in volcanic rocks, and from flowing water near primary forests. Adults do not appear to be anthropophagic. Anopheles eouzani was collected in the Bamboutos Mountains in Western Cameroon at a height of about 2400 m.
Linton and Harbach, 2005 pp. 332–337. In Linton, Dusfour, Howard, Ruiz, Nguyen, Trung, Sochanta, Coosemans and Harbach. Bulletin of Entomological Research 95: 329–339.
Name“In ancient Greek, the adjective ‘epiroticus’ was used to describe people originating from the northwestern district of Epiros in mainland Greece. However, in modern Greek, the name has became [sic] synonymous with ‘from the mainland', and thus the new member of the An. sundaicus complex is named An. eproticus to reflect its primary distribution in Southeast Asia.” Formerly Anopheles sundaicus species A of the Southeast Asian An. sundaicus species complex.
There are no reliable morphological differences separating the adults, fourth instar larvae and pupae from those of An. sundaicus s. str. It was not possible to compare the morphology of the eggs of An. epiroticus and An. sundaicus s. str. Identification of this new species is based on DNA sequence differentiation of the entire nuclear ITS2 region and on a portion of both the cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial genes. Larval habitats of An. epiroticus are sunlit brackish waters, including pools, often associated with coastal fish and shrimp farming, especially in southern Vietnam. Adults bite humans and rest in human habitations. Widespread in southeast Asia, occurring in Cambodia, Malaysia, Sarawak, Thailand and Vietnam
Gillies and Coetzee 1987. pp. 76–77. In Publication of the South African Institute for Medical Research, No. 55, 143 pp. Ward (1992), page 181.
Name Not stated but clearly named after the country Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is a landlocked country situated in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered in the north by Eritrea, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the east and Djibouti to the northeast. It is one of the oldest countries in the world and covers about 1,133,380 km² with an estimated population of over 85 million. The capital is Addis Ababa. Ethiopia's dynastic history traditionally began with the reign of Emperor Menelik I in 1,000 BC, then as early as the 4th century the Aksumite Empire had used the name Ethiopia. In the 18th and early 19th centuries there was a period of decentralization, but in 1855 the country was reunited by Kassa Hailu who became Emperor Tewodros II, and so began the modern history of Ethiopia. The 1880s were marked by the “Scramble for Africa” and the modernization of Ethiopia. The Italians began to vie with the British for influence in bordering regions. Asseb, a port near the southern entrance of the Red Sea, was bought in March 1870 from the local Afar sultan, vassal to the Ethiopian Emperor, by an Italian company, which by 1890 led to the Italian colonies of Eritrea and Somalia, but the Italians wanted a richer country and so they invaded Ethiopia. Conflicts between Italy and Ethiopia resulted in the Battle of Adwa and on 1 March 1896 the Ethiopians defeated Italy and the country remained independent, under the rule of Menelik II. Italy and Ethiopia signed a provisional treaty of peace on 26 October 1896. Then in 1936 Ethiopia was brutally occupied, again by the Italians, until the country was liberated by the Ethiopian Patriotic Force and the British Commonwealth Forces in 1941. Emperor Haile Selasse ruled Ethiopia from 1930 until 1974 when a military junta deposed him and established a socialist state. The regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. Within Ethiopia there is a large highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley which runs southwest to northwest and is surrounded by the lowlands, steppes or semi-desert. The lowest point is the Danakil Depression at –125 m while the highest is Ras Dejen at an elevation of 4,533 m. Only about 10% of the land is arable, main crops are coffee, maize, cereals, oilseeds, sugar cane and potatoes. Coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner, the second is maize. The livestock population is considered to be the largest in Africa, and accounts for about 10.6% of Ethiopia's export income, with leather and leather products making up 7.5%. Natural resources include small reserves of gold, silver, platinum, copper, potash and natural gas. Ethiopia is the only sub-Saharan African country that has undisputed historical and cultural links to the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean. The Egyptians believed that their forebears were from Ethiopia and an Ethiopian dynasty was established in Egypt in 720 BC. Records indicate that the earliest Egyptians clearly knew of Ethiopia's existence. Ethiopia has gained international fame for its archaeological treasures on the evolution of mankind. The most important was a partial skeleton of a female nicknamed “Ardi” which was found in 1992 in the Middle Awash study area in the Afar Rift, about 230 km northeast of Addis Ababa. The assessment of the 4.4-million-year-old animal called Ardipithecus ramidus, is that it is neither a chimpanzee nor a human but an evolutionary stage in between these two. Ethiopia is the spiritual homeland of the Rastafarian religious movement. Ethiopia has more species of mammals (277) than any other sub-Saharan country and at least 16 are endemic species. Among the mammals are lions, elephants, zebra, gazelle, antelope, civets (Civetticis civetta), serval cats (Felis serval), bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), ibex (Capra ibex), kudu (Tragelaphus imbertis), dik-dik (Madoqua saltiana), oribi (Ourebia ourebi), reed buck (Redunca redunca), wild ass (Equus africanus), gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada) and numerous other species of monkey. The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is a very large canine found in a handful of scattered mountainous areas and heather moorlands and with possibly only 200 remaining is facing extinction. It is the only wolf species found in sub-Saharan Africa. Bird species number 924 of which 23 are endemic. There are 71 species of amphibian and 208 species of reptiles. Ethiopia has the largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa and Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).
A single blood-fed female of An. ethiopicus was caught by E.F. Krafsur resting in a house in Gambela, Illubabor Province, Ethiopia. This single type specimen lacking hind legs was deposited in the British Museum (Natural History), London, now The Natural History Museum, London. Despite the absence of hind legs the authors ingeniously argued that it is a new species. For example, if the missing hind tarsi 4 and 5, or just tarsus 4, were pale it would somewhat resembles An. rufipes, but it differs from all forms of this species by the absence of a second pale spot on the 2nd main dark area of vein 1. If the missing hind legs had one or both tarsal segments 4 and 5 not completely pale it would be identified as An. cinereus or other species in the Paramyzomyia series. But their unique female differs from any of these species by having a pale fringe spot opposite vein 6 and by the mesonotum having white scales, and so was named as a new species. Nothing is known about the ecology of An. ethiopicus. This species is only known from Gambela, Ethiopia.
Wilkerson and Sallum 1999. Journal of Medical Entomology 36: 345–354.
Name“This species is named for Oswaldo Paulo Forattini, collaborator and highly respected medical entomologist, for his outstanding contributions to the advancement of medical entomology.”
Forattini (1924–2007) was the only child of Italian immigrants who settled in Brazil in the 1920s. He became fluent in Portuguese, Italian, French, English and Spanish. After leaving school he studied medical science at the Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo and during this time he became involved in tropical medicine research and published six papers in 1946 and another five in 1947. After leaving medical School in 1949 he embarked on a career of medical entomology and began his studies by collaborating in 1950 with the medical entomologist John Lane. In 1957, he joined the Department of Parasitology and Rural Hygiene, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, and in 1967 he became professor and chairman when the organization was restructured to become the Department of Epidemiology. In addition to his numerous papers on mosquitoes he also published on the Ceratopogonidae, Phlebotominae, Cimicidae and not surprisingly, the Triatominae. He published more than 200 scientific papers on medical entomology and tropical medicine as well as 13 books on medical entomology, including his classic four-volume books dealing with medical entomology in the Neotropical Region. In 1967 he became the founding editor of Revista de Saúde Pública, but in 2005 after 40 years as editor, ill health forced him in to step down. He loved medical entomology, working long hours including weekends. His work was also his hobby. Forattini was an inspired lecturer and speaker and trained numerous undergraduate and graduate students, but in addition to his scientific work he had a passionate interest in literature, classical music, history and the arts. Forattini died on 15 September 2007, leaving a wife, Maria Teresinha Dias de Andrade, a son Eduardo Paulo de Andrade Forattini, a daughter-in-law Nathalia Bertonn and a granddaughter Giula. Based on an obituary by Sallum, Harbach, and Harrison 2008. See also Gilbert, (2007).
Anopheles mediopunctatus was known as a common species widely distributed in Latin America, including the West Indies. Now, however this species is known to comprise at least three species: An. mediopunctatus, An. costai which is elevated from synonymy with An. mediopunctatus, and the current new species An. forattini. Adult females of all three species are morphologically very similar but An. forattini and An. costai have an elliptical cercus whereas it is triangular in An. mediopunctatus. It appears that adult males can be identified by the shape of the ventral lobe of the claspette and by the dorsal lobe having 3 apical modified setae, one of which has an expanded hook like beak. Pupae of An. forattini can be identified by a combination of characters including the shape of the wing cases and having the paddle rounded. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of characters such as the length/width ratio of the antennae, the degree of development of seta 1–II and the clypeal index. Little is known about the biology of An. forattini, but larvae were collected from drying pools in stream beds and ground pools in a shaded forest. Adult females were collected on human bait. There was no direct evidence that An. forattini is a malaria vector, but Terry A. Klein and colleagues had earlier reported An. mediopunctatus s. l. to be susceptible to Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum. But Wilkerson and Sallum believe that these findings actually refer to An. forattini because the other species, An. costai, formerly known as An. mediopunctatus, is now known to have been rare in their collecting area whereas An. forattini is common. Anopheles forattini occurs in Amazonian Brazil, Peru, Colombia and French Guiana.
Rattanarithikul and Harbach 1990. Mosquito Systematics 22: 160–183. Ward (1992), p. 181.
Name“Anopheles greeni is named in honor of Dr. Christopher A. Green for his pioneering research on the cytotaxonomy of the Maculatus Complex in Southeast Asia.” Formerly An. maculates form D of Green et. al. (1985).
Chris Green was born in Huddersfield, Yorkshire on 20 May 1942. He obtained a B.Sc. degree from the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (Now the University of Zimbabwe). In his early days he was a medical entomologist in the malaria control division of the Blair Research Laboratory in Harare. Here he pioneered the development of chromosomal and biochemical techniques for the identification of sibling species in the An. gambiae species complex. This had far-reaching practical implications. For example, An. arabiensis was a major local malaria vector, and some populations had developed resistance to HCH, whereas in contrast An. quadriannulatus, was neither a vector nor had it developed insecticide resistance. Ability to identify these two sibling species of the An. gambiae species complex helped understand the epidemiology of malaria. In 1972 he went to the University of Western Australia for a 3-year period to liaise with Professor Hugh Patterson on researching the epidemiology of myxomatosis in rabbits. They discovered that the main vector, An. annulipes, was not a single species but comprised a group of species. Then in late 1977 he joined the Department of Medical Entomology at the South African Institute for Medical Research. Chris continued his studies on the cytogenetics of anophelines, and in 1982, some 17 years after graduation, he received a Ph.D. from the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, for his work on mosquito genetics. In those days he had several clashes with apartheid laws and its regulation and he often had to make phone calls to friends and colleagues asking for bail to “spring” him from the police cells. After five years in S. Africa he left and joined the University of Mahidol in Bangkok, where he was to spend a very productive 10 years undertaking taxonomic research on anophelines. In 1992 he left the university and had short-term consultancies from the World Health Organization. He then returned again to Africa and the last three years of his life were spent in the National Malaria Research Program of the South African Medical Research Council working on malaria vectors of northern KwaZulu/Natal. His legacy surely must be his pioneering work on genetics and cytotaxonomy to identify cryptic species in Anopheles malaria vectors in both Africa and Asia. If he had lived, I am sure he would have been an enthusiastic advocate of molecular methods in species identification. Rather surprisingly, he published fewer than 40 scientific papers, but these were based on first class research that have made significant advances to unravelling species complexes. Chris died after a long illness on 6 November 1997. Based on an obituary by Coetzee (1998). See also Gilbert, (2007).
Anopheles greeni is a species of the An. maculatus species complex. Polytene chromosomes of An. greeni are unlike those of An. dispar, a closely related species. However, as the authors point out such differences in their chromosomes does not necessarily prove genetic isolation because their chromosomes were observed in allopatric populations. However, the authors were able to correlate distinctive morphological traits with each of the two cytotypes which allowed them to distinguish two morphotypes from single localities. This was interpreted as showing that the two forms were reproductively isolated species. As a consequence they described two new species, An. greeni and An. dispar. However, these two species and also An. maculatus are not easily distinguished. For example, about 44% of adult An. greeni have an accessory sector pale spot on both the costa and subcosta, but about 56%, resemble the 43% of An. dispar that have an accessory sector pale spot only on the subcosta. As with An. dispar pupae and fourth instar larvae of An. greeni are easily differentiated from those of An. maculatus. In contrast, An. greeni and An. dispar are taxonomically very similar in all life stages (eggs not studied) and so they are usually difficult to distinguish because of the overlap of several morphological features. However, there appear to be chromosomal differences that can help distinguish An. greeni from An. dispar and An maculatus. Little is known about the ecology of An. greeni but larvae have been collected from small streams and pools. Although there is no direct evidence that this species is a malaria vector the authors nevertheless believe it might prove to be vector. Anopheles greeni appears to be endemic to the Philippines, being found from Luzon to Mindano.
Xu and Luo 1998. Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases 16: (1) 45–52. (In English, brief summary in Chinese).
Name Not stated, but clearly named after Hailar City in Mongolia and Latinized to hailarensis.
Hailar City is situated on the south bank of the Hailar River at its junction with the Yimin River in the northern reaches of Inner Mongolia. It is the largest city in the Hulunbuir Prefecture covering an area of 1440 km2. The city boasts Inner Mongolia's most interesting and beautiful scenery, including the infinite grasslands and Hulun Lake. Mongolia borders Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west, with the extreme western area being just 38 km from eastern Kazakhstan. The Mongolian capital and largest town is Ulan Bator where about 38% of the people live. Mongolia has had a turbulent history and been ruled by various nomadic empires. In 1206 Genghis Khan united sections of Mongolia to form the Mongolian Empire. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism, and toward the end of the 17th century most of the country was ruled by the Qing Dynasty. On the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 Mongolia declared its independence, but for much of the time it was under the influence of the Soviet Union. It was only in 1945 that the country gained international recognition, but even then it was not until 1990 that that a Democratic Revolution led to a multi-party system followed by a new constitution in 1992. Covering an area of 1,564,116 km2, Mongolia is the nineteenth largest country and has a population of about 2.9 million, being the most sparsely populated country in the world. The country is landlocked with very little arable land because much of the country is covered by steppes, with cold mountainous regions to the north and west, and the Gobi Deseret in the south. The highest mountain Khüiten Peak rises to 4,374 m. Lake Uvs Nuur, shared with Russia, is a natural World Heritage Site. Mongolia has rich mineral resources such as copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold. Agricultural crops include wheat, barley, potatoes, tomatoes, watermelons, sea-buckthorn and fodder crops. The traditional herd animals are sheep which are the major subsistence animals, goats, Bactrian camels, Yaks, cows and horses. There is a very diverse and distinctive flora and fauna which represent a mixture of species from the northern taiga of Siberia, the steppes, and the deserts of Central Asia. There are some 4,000 species of plants, of which 150 are listed as endemic. Currently there are 140 species of mammals with six endemic species and another 12 listed as threatened. Some of these rare species are the bactrian camel (Camellus bactrianus), snow leopard (Uncia uncial) asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and the Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica mongolica). There are 457 species of birds including three species of grebes (Podiceps species), the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) and there are 30 species of endangered or endemic species such as the brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum), the Altai snowcock (Tetraogallus altaicos) and Kozlav's accentor (Prunella koslowi). There are 22 reptilian species, eight amphibian species and at least 76 species of fish. Many new species of plants and animals have been found in Mongolia and there are certainly many more species to be discovered. The Przewalskis (Equus ferus przewalski), the national symbol of Mongolia, are the only true wild remaining horses in the world but the Mongolian population died out in the mid 1960s. Thankfully, successful breeding programs outside Mongolia have allowed this wild horse to be reintroduced in Mongolia, such as in the forests and steppes of Hustai National Park.
Anopheles hailarensis is a species of the An. hyrcanus species group which, with about 20 species, is one of the most complicated anopheline groups in China. Morphologically, this new species is similar to An. sinensis and An. heiheensis, but can be distinguished by a combination of taxonomic features. For example, in An. hailarensis the remigium of adult females has a mixture of dark and pale scales, vein 5.2 has a pale fringe spot, tarsomeres 1–3 of the of the foreleg have only narrow apical pale bands and no basal pale bands, and tarsomere 1 of the hindleg has an apical pale band while tarsomeres 2–4 have apical pale bands and also basal pale bands. Males are distinguished by the male genitalia having 5–6 pairs of leaflets on the aedeagus. Combinations of small morphological differences exhibited by the pupae and fourth instar larvae appear to distinguish this species from those of An. sinensis and An. heiheensis. The length and width of the eggs can separate An. hailarensis from those of An. sinensis. Larvae occur in freshwater ground pools and pits having aquatic plants, while adult females have been caught in cowsheds. Anopheles hailarensis, in addition to being recorded from Mongolia, has also been collected from Zalantun, Nei Mongol, China and also from Korea.
Silva do Nascimento and Lourenço-de-Oliverira 2002. Memória Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 97: 801–811.
Name Derivation of the name is not stated but presumably from the Greek words halo and phile meaning salt-loving.
Anopheles halophylus belongs to the An. triannulatus species complex of four sibling species but is morphologically closest to An. triannulatus, a common and widespread mosquito in Central and South America. Adult females of An. halophylus share many of their morphological characters with those of An. triannulatus, but can usually be identified by a combination of characters, mainly by the distribution of pale and dark scales on the wing veins and legs. Adult males can be identified by their genitalia, such as the shape of the ventral lobe of the claspette, and especially by the shape of the apicolateral lobes which are broad and usually directed proximally. Pupae can be identified by a combination of characters and fourth instar larvae by the setal arrangement and the structure of the spiracular apparatus. Eggs can be identified by the shape of the floats and deck. In An. halophylus the floats are nearly 60% of the total length of the egg while the deck occupies about 50% of the dorsal surface. It seems that the morphology of the eggs is the easiest life-stage to distinguish An. halophylus from An. triannulatus. Known larval habitats are sunlit swamps and temporary small lakes that are saline. Adults appear to be mainly zoophagic as during collections about 10 times more females bit a horse than a human. Adults are exophilic. Anopheles halophylus is not considered to be involved in the transmission of malaria. Only known from type locality of Salobra, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Harbach and Manguin 2007. pp. 44–51. In Harbach, Garros, Nguyen and Manguin. Zootaxa 1654: 41–54.
Name“This species is named in honor of Dr. Bruce A. Harrison (Public Health Pest Management, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Winston-Salem, North Carolina) for his many important contributions to our knowledge of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Oriental Region, especially his taxonomic investigations of the Myzomyia Series (Harrison, 1980) that provided the foundation for integrated morphological and molecular studies of this medically important group of insects.” Formerly Anopheles minimus species C.
Bruce Arthur Harrison was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 13 October 1937, and five years later moved to Quitman, a small rural town in extreme southern Georgia. The rural Georgia environment strongly influenced his hobbies and his professional career. He finished high school in 1955, went to North Carolina State College, Raleigh, North Carolina, and received a Bachelor of Science degree in Agriculture Science and Wildlife Biology in early 1960. In 1959, he married Carole Crews, a long-time sweetheart. He attended the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, and received a Master of Arts degree in Entomology in 1965. While in the Army, he attended North Carolina State University and received his Ph.D. in entomology in 1979. During 1965–1966, he worked as a Civilian Medical Entomologist for the U.S. Army, and in 1967 he joined the U.S. Army as a Medical Service Corps officer, beginning a 23-year military career as a research entomologist/taxonomist. He was affiliated with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, for his entire career. In Washington, Bruce worked as a research taxonomist at the Smithsonian Institution, and was manager of the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit from 1982–1987. Overseas, his work focused primarily on vectors and their taxonomy, distributions, vector efficiency, and control of vectors of malaria and other mosquito-borne infectious diseases. His family accompanied him on his overseas assignments. During the first tour in Thailand (1967–1970), Bruce studied the famous malaria vector, Anopheles minimus, and closely related species. This eventually served as his Ph.D. project, and was a seminal publication. [Harrison, B.A. 1980. Medical Entomology Studies – XIII. The Myzomyia Series of Anopheles (Cellia) in Thailand, with emphasis on intra-interspecific variations (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute (Ann Arbor) 17 (4): 1–195]. From 1977–1981, Bruce was Chief of the Department of Entomology, at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok. During 1987–1989 he was assigned as Deputy Commander and Chief, Department of Entomology to the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overseas, Bruce worked on the vectors of malaria, dengue, filariasis, scrub typhus, plague, Chikungunya fever, Japanese encephalitis and fly-borne diarrheal diseases. He conducted many lengthy taxonomic expeditions between 1967–1990, mostly in remote areas of Thailand, while others were in the Philippines, Malaysia, Kenya, Brazil, Peru, Hong Kong and The New Territories, Israel, and Egypt. These efforts resulted in over 150,000 mosquito specimens being deposited in the National Museum of Natural History mosquito collection in Washington, DC. Following military retirement in 1990, Bruce worked as a Senior Staff Officer at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. He was project manager for 50 grants from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to overseas scientists in developing countries. Bruce resigned from the National Academy of Sciences to return to field work as a medical entomologist in 1993. Since then he has worked for the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and is stationed in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. He is the state medical entomology consultant for 47 counties in western North Carolina. Since 1999, Bruce has trained over 700 mosquito control personnel from six states in 40 training courses focusing on surveillance, identification, and pooling mosquitoes for virus assays. He is a member of the State Vector-Borne Diseases Task Force, and interacts with the media and also provides presentations at professional meetings. To date, Bruce has published 103 scientific papers (including two books), described 11 new mosquito species including seven Anopheles, and Baimaia, a new subgenus of Anopheles. Colleagues have named one genus, four mosquito species, and a chigger species in his honor. He served as an advisor on 12 graduate committees, and for one postdoctoral position. Also, he worked on mosquito-borne disease prevention in nine disaster or humanitarian situations, including the Cambodian refugee emergency in Thailand in 1979–1980, Hurricane Katrina, and the 2007 Kansas floods. Bruce and Carole have been happily married for over 50 years, have three happily married sons, and 12 grandchildren. He has no plans to retire, and continues his medical entomology work as well as research on the morphology and genetics of mosquitoes.
Anopheles harrisoni is a member of the An. minimus species complex and is morphologically very similar to An. minimus. Progeny of wild-caught females provided associated larval and pupal exuviae of both An. minimus and An. harrisoni. These two species were then identified by electrophoresis of octanol dehydrogenase (Odh) enzyme locus and PCR-RFLP of ITS2. Attempts to find morphological differences between the two species failed, and it was concluded they were isomorphic in all life stages, consequently identification of An. harrisoni and An. minimus has to rely on genetic and molecular methods. Little is known about the biology and behavior of An. harrisoni because it cannot be distinguished from An. minimus during ecological and epidemiological studies. Although larval habitats are unknown it is likely that they will be similar to those of An. minimus. However, it seems that An. harrisoni is more zoophagic than anthropophagic, and is both exophagic and exophilic. The vectorial status of this species has not been established, but there is some evidence that it may be a malaria vector in China. It appears that An. harrisoni has a more patchy distribution in Southeast Asia than does An. minimus, but it is known to occur in south-central China, central Myanmar, northern and central Vietnam and north-western Thailand.
Ma, Su-Fu (1981b). Sinozoologica 1: 59–70. (In Chinese, brief summary in English). Ward (1992), page 179.
Name Neither the original Chinese paper nor an anonymous English translation found on the Internet indicated the origin of the name An. heiheensis. Sadly, as Ma died in about 2007, we cannot ask her about the derivation of the name of this species. However, as Ma gives the distribution of this species as Heihe I suspect this species was named after the city of Heihe in Heilongjiang Province, Sichuan.
Heihe city is located at 50° 14’ North and 127° 28’ East in the northeastern border of China on the south bank of the Amur River across from the Russian city of Blagoveshchensk. It has a population of about 113,000 inhabitants. Before today's town of Heihe was established, the main town was Aigun, which was about 30 km south of the present day Heihe. Between 1683–1690 Aigun was the capital and seat of the Military Government in Heilongjiang Province. In 1868 the Manchu government was forced to sign the Treaty of Aigum by tsarist Russia. The main tourist attraction is Wudalianchi, also known as the Five Large Lakes which are connected together and were formed by laval flow. Wudalianchi Geopark is a scenic area with 14 volcanoes making a unique volcanic landscape. Heihe today is a free-trade zone with Blagoveshchensk, and has become a major center of Sino-Russian trade. Many Chinese and Russians take advantage of visa-free travel between the two cities, and some Russians have purchased apartments on the Chinese side of the border. Travel from Russia to China is by boat, or in the winter by a bus driving over the frozen river, but by hovercraft when the ice is too thin for travel.
Anopheles heiheensis is a member of the An. sinensis species group. It is morphologically very close to An. sinensis and An. xiaokuanus but adults can be distinguished by a combination of characters such as the coxae having pale scales, hind tibia with basal and apical broad pale bands and the frontal tuft has long pale setae. Adult males can be distinguished by the structure of the aedeagus. Larvae found in rice fields and irrigation canals. Adult ecology unknown. Only known from Heihe, Heilogjiang Province, China.
Barr and Guptavanij 1989. Mosquito Systematics 20: 352–356. Ward (1992), page 179.
Name“As was intended by (J.N). Belkin, the species is named in honor of William B. Herms, who contributed much to the study of medical entomology in California”. The intention of Belkin to name this species was in an unpublished paper by J.N. Belkin and W.A. McDonald.
William Brodbeck Herms was born on 22 September 1876 at Portsmouth, Ohio. He went to a local school and graduated in 1894. Although he was determined to study medicine he had insufficient funds for a college education so was forced to enter a business career for four years, by which time he had saved sufficient money to enter college. He went to Baldwin-Wallace College and graduated in 1902. From early boyhood he saw the ravages that malaria inflicted on local people following the annual spring flood of the Ohio River. He knew about Sir Ronald Ross’ discovery of malaria transmission and how the disease could be controlled, and so his interest switched from medicine per se to medical entomology. He was one of the first to realize the importance of ecological studies when planning malaria control strategies. He won fellowships at the universities of Western Reserve, Ohio State and Harvard where he did pioneering work on the behavior of insects to light. He was appointed Assistant Professor of Entomology at the University of California in 1908. In 1912 the title changed to Assistant Professor of Parasitology, thus making him the first in the U.S.A. to hold an academic title in parasitology. In 1915 he became Associate Professor and in 1921 Professor of Parasitology and Entomology in the university's Experiment Station. In 1909–1910, businessmen and fruit growers in Placer County asked for his help in reducing malaria, and this led to a very well organized and effective mosquito control program, which was the first antimalarial mosquito control campaign in the U.S.A. He then organized malaria control throughout much of California. During World War 1 (1914–1918) he enlisted in the armed forces and soon became a Major in the Sanitary Corps supervising malaria control in areas of Texas and Virginia. Returning to civilian life in 1919 he was made head of the Division of Entomology and Parasitology, a position he held until retirement on 22 September 1946. Although now in his 70s he enlisted again during World War 2 (1939–1945) and rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He supervised the training of prospective army physicians in Environmental Sanitation at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. Another facet of his character was his long service with the Boy Scouts of America. Herms was a scientist of international repute, and a much respected university lecturer. Although he published several scientific papers he became best known for his book Medical Entomology first published in 1932, followed by reprints and new editions, with the book's sixth edition in 1969 becoming Herms's Medical Entomology, written by M.T. James and R.F. Harwood. Herms died on 9 May 1949. Based on an obituary by Freeborn, Gray, Legge and Usinger (1949). See also Gilbert (1977, 2007).
Anopheles hermsi is a member of the American An. maculipennis species complex. It was designated the “southern occidentalis” by Baker and Kitzmiller (1963). Although Baker and Kitzmiller described the chromosomes of the true An. occidentalis in 1965, they made no mention of the “southern occidentalis.” J.N. Belkin and W.A. McDonald in an unpublished manuscript gave taxonomic keys that differentiated larva and pupae of the “southern occidentalis” from other An. maculipennis species complex forms found in California. Barr and Guptavanij found that adult females and males of An. hermsi were indistinguishable from those of An. freeborni. However, they found differences in the number of branches of some pupal setae, but in the last couplet of a taxonomic key the chance of distinguishing An. hermsi from An. occidentals was only about 89%. Similarly, the last couplet in a key to fourth instar larvae shows that the likelihood of correctly identifying An. hermsi was also about 89%. It seems doubtful whether measurements of the length and width of eggs and length of the float will prove reliable. In conclusion the only way of reliably identifying An. hermsi is by the presence of a terminal puff in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary glands which is absent from An. freeborni and An. occidentalis. Little information is presented on the ecology of this species except that it is anthropophagic. It seems that An. hermsi is an efficient vector of Plasmodium vivax and apparently was responsible for malaria epidemics in San Diego County, California in 1986 and 1988. These epidemics largely involved agricultural workers who lived and slept in temporary shelters in the fields. Anopheles hermsi was found in Los Angeles County and Malibu Canyon of the Pacific Coastal Highway, California.
Brunhes, le Goff and Geoffroy 1999. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 15: 552–558.
Name Although not mentioned by the authors clearly named for J-P.G. Hervy who for many years studied anopheline mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa.
I have not been able to obtain a complete life history account of Mr John-Paul Hervy. However, he was a renowned French medical entomologist who when affiliated to ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) worked at the Center Muraz de Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso. [Created in 1939 by the French Army Medical Lieutenant-Colonel Gaston Muraz as a Center specializing in the control of sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) in West Africa. Later becoming a multipurpose center for major endemic diseases, and in 1956 named in honor of its founder Muraz]. At the Center, Hervy began his evaluation of the impact insecticides had on mosquitoes including the effectiveness of different formulations. He also investigated a village scale evaluation of temephos (Abate) for larval mosquito control in Upper Volta. At the end of these studies in the 1980's he was based in Senegal where he studied the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever and dengue, by Aedes species, especially Ae. furcifer and Ae. taylori, and in 1990 dengue 2 was isolated for the first time. In 1989 he investigated the epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever in Dakar, Senegal. In 1990 John-Paul worked at the ORSTOM laboratories in Montpellier, France, where he enthusiastically studied the many problems of the classification of medically important insects in the collection of the Institut de Recherche pour Développment (IRD). He developed five computer programs for the identification of tsetse flies, African anophelines, Mediterranean mosquitoes, and African phlebotomine sand flies. In 2002 in collaboration with Phillipe Boussès and Jacques Brunhes he produced a collection of photographs of medically important insects in the book Library of Medical Entomology. Prior to his retirement, his last work was developing a CD on the genus Uranotaenia in Madagascar, which led to the publication by da Cunha Ramos and Brunhes (2004) on this genus. Apart from medically important insects he had a passion for orchids, and in retirement published several papers on orchids of France such as the orchids of Héraut. In January 2004 he wrote an article “The mapping of orchids: a necessity”, in the Orchid Newsletter Number 1. Sadly, Hervy died toward the end of 2004.
In 1965, Brunhes caught mosquitoes from Zinder, Niger in human bait collections that were identical to mosquitoes caught in Zinder by J. Hamon and colleagues in 1963. These mosquitoes were morphologically similar to specimens of An. salbaii caught in Ethiopia in 1943. The mosquitoes from Niger were eventually recognized as a new species which was named An. hervyi. This new species is morphologically very similar to An. salbaii, but adult females are identified by having segment 3 of the palps conspicuously spotted with white scales and by having white rings on articulations of tarsomeres 1–I and 2- I, and 2–I and 3–I. Adult males and the immature stages are unknown. Virtually nothing is known about the ecology of An. hervyi except that adults are anthropophagic and a few adults have been caught inside dwellings. In the absence of saline waters in areas where An. hervyi has been collected it would appear that larval habitats contain fresh water as distinct to larvae of An. salbaii which occur in brackish or salt waters. Anopheles hervyi is found in the central area of southern Niger, but the authors consider that it may occur elsewhere such as in Nigeria.
Schmidt 2001. page 400. In Schmidt, Foley, Hartel, Williams and Bryan. Bulletin of Entomological Research 91: 389–410.
Name“This species is named in honour of Judith and Michael Hines, who assisted in the collection and maintenance of the specimens from Eubenangee Swamp in 1969, which led to the discovery of the first of the A. farauti sibling species.” Formerly Anopheles farauti No. 2 of Bryan (1973), which was identified as a new species by cross mating, cytogenetic and allozyme studies.
Michael Hines was born on 1 January 1931. In his early career he had worked as a technician with the myxomatosis project at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and in 1957 spent a year working on Macquarie Island where his work included projects on seals, albatrosses and penguins. Then he worked from 1962–1970 as a technical assistant in the biology department at the Townsville campus of the University of Queensland and then as a laboratory manager in the Pathology Department in the Medical School of the University of Queensland from 1971 until his retirement in 1995. When he was working as a technical assistant in the Zoology Department of the Townsville campus of the University of Queensland, which later evolved into the James Cook University, he aided Joan Bryan in collecting mosquito specimens, later to be named An. hinesorum. He drove Joan to the mosquito collection sites and participated in a night-biting collection. When the biting collection was finished Michael and Joan drove back to Townsville during the night, the excursion there and back was over 400 km. Then the mosquitoes that Joan and Michael had collected were kept in a bathroom to oviposit. Joan and her sister, Judy, looked after these mosquitoes and dispatched their resultant eggs to the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. This was quite an achievement given that Townsville was in the middle of a heat wave and the council was carrying out insecticidal fogging of the area to control biting nuisance mosquitoes. So, great care had to be taken that the eggs sent to London were not contaminated with insecticides. The new species of the An. farauti complex collected by Joan and Michael was firstly called An. farauti No 2, but when its status as a new sibling species was confirmed in 2001 it seemed appropriate to name it An. hinesorum in honor of Joan's sister, Judy, and her husband, Michael. Judy and her identical twin sister Joan were born on 2 August 1939, and on 19 May 1965 Judy married Michael. Incidentally, Judy and Joan were frequently mistaken for each other by both family and friends. In 1960 Judy Hines gained a B.Sc. with honors in Zoology from the University of Queensland. She then worked as a demonstrator at the Townsville campus of the University of Queensland. After raising her four sons, she retrained firstly as a school teacher and taught biology for six years and then she retrained as a librarian and worked for three years as a librarian at the library of the Department of Primary Industries in Brisbane.
Morphologically, neither the female adults, male adults, pupae nor fourth instar larvae of An. hinesorum can be differentiated from An. farauti and An. torresiensis with complete confidence, although some taxonomic characters may allow a reasonable degree of identification of certain life-stages. More accurate identification can be achieved by using molecular methods such as allozymes or PCR-RFLP. Little is known about the ecology of this species, but laboratory salinity tests that have been used to help identify larvae An. farauti, which are tolerant of brackish waters, show that An. hinesorum does not tolerate saline waters. However, salinity tolerance may vary throughout its geographical distribution. Adults of An. hinesorum are zoophagic. Found in northern Australia including the Horne and Prince of Wales Islands in the Torres Strait, the most southerly record is Etty Bay in Queensland. In the Northern Territory An. hinesorum occurs along the east coast and the central area, but not on the west coast. Also known from New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.
Lambert and Coetzee 1982. Systematic Entomology 7: 321–332.
Name“Anopheles hughi is named in honour of Professor Paterson and in recognition of his pioneering work on the Anopheles gambiae complex”.
As a naturalist, Hugh had always been interested in the nature of species, whether in birds, mammals, insects, plasmodia or schistosomes. Working in the field of medical entomology in South Africa he found an endless array of taxonomic problems which suggested that a genetical approach might elucidate matters. As an undergraduate he had been stimulated in his interest of species by reading the third edition Dobzhanky's “Systematics and the Origin of Species” when it appeared in 1951. Hugh was born on the 26 December 1926 at Pietersburg, South Africa. He graduated with a B.Sc. degree in Chemistry and Zoology in 1949. After spending 1950 as a member of a team studying the environmental physiology of miners on the City Deep Gold Mine in Johannesburg, he completed his Honors year in 1951 and then joined the Department of Entomology at the South African Institute for Medical Research, which was at that time headed by Dr. Botha de Meillon. At first he worked on the family Muscidae, but in 1954 he joined a team under Dr. Kenneth Smithburn of the Rockefeller Foundation, who had come to South Africa to study the epidemiology of arboviruses. At first his time was split between the two responsibilities, but in 1955 he was assigned exclusively to the arbovirus work. His new responsibility was the collection and identification of live culicine mosquitoes for attempts at arthropod-borne virus isolation. He remained with the arbovirus team until the end of 1963. This work provided him with a wide experience of the ecology and biology of mosquitoes. He had always maintained broad interests; for example, he took an early interest in the work being done on the Culex pipiens species complex and the phenomenon of cytoplasmic incompatibility. In 1964 he attended a meeting in Geneva devoted to the Cx. pipiens species complex. In 1961 Hugh became involved with Anopheles when he was asked by the World Health Organization (WHO) to act as a short-term consultant at Amani, Tanzania. Here he took over a study of the salt-water and freshwater-breeding forms of the taxon Anopheles gambiae. In 1962 he was again asked to act as a consultant for WHO, this time on Mauritius investigating the An. gambiae species complex on the island. In 1964 he took up a lectureship in Zoology at the (then) University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland where he continued working on house flies and the An. gambiae species complex. The climax to much work and the many debates on the evolutionary status of the members of the An. gambiae species complex was reached during the First International Congress of Parasitology in Rome in 1964, where he presented evidence that the three freshwater-breeding members were distinct genetic species. Extending his argument, it was evident that the saltwater breeding populations on the East and West coasts of Africa were also distinct genetic species. In January 1966 he was appointed to the staff of the University of Western Australia to teach genetics. At this time he completed his Ph.D. thesis which was entitled “Evolutionary and Population Genetical Studies of Certain Diptera.” It comprised evolutionary and taxonomic studies of Musca domestica, Musca sorbens and Musca vetustissima; Chrysomya chloropyga, C. putoria; and the An. gambiae species complex. The thesis was examined by Boris Balinsky, Theodosius Dobzhansky and Alan Robertson and his degree was awarded in 1968. In Australia, Dave Lambert had heard of Hugh's work on the An. gambiae species complex and wished to do his Ph.D. under Hugh's supervision. He was a graduate of the Department of Zoology of the University of Queensland and his M.Sc. thesis entailed studying the courtship, cytogenetics and crossing genetics of four closely related species of the Drosophila nasuta species complex. Dave joined Hugh in 1975, soon after Hugh was appointed to the chair of Zoology at his alma mater. At this time he was developing a perspective of species which differed significantly from Dobzhansky's classical views – the views which he had, to that point, relied upon. As a research topic Dave and Hugh, after consultation with Maureen Coetzee, settled on a study of An. marshallii. There were indications in the literature that this might prove to be a species complex, and Hugh thought it would provide a good test of the new species concept. The results from electrophoretic analysis, polytene cytogenetics and hybridization experiments, interpreted in the light of ecological studies, revealed four cryptic species. Species C was eventually named Anopheles hughi (Lambert and Coetzee, 1982). Although morphologically extremely similar to An. marshallii, Maureen Coetzee's meticulous taxonomic studies revealed slight but constant differences between these two species. Another cryptic species was An. letabensis, which appeared to be the only one of this complex that frequently bites humans, which immediately raised doubt on earlier records of man-biting “An. marshallii,” and also demonstrated once more the importance of working with genetic species in medical entomology and in ecology generally. The fourth species detected by Dave was from Kosi Bay, Northern Natal. Although the genetic and cytogenetic evidence for species status was impressive, it was not at first named because existing evidence suggested it was allopatric with respect to the three other species and therefore could not be categorically demonstrated to be distinct at the species level. However, in 1987 Maureen and her colleagues formally described the fourth species as An. kosiensis. Dave went on to a distinguished career in evolutionary biology in New Zealand at Massey University, and most recently, in Australia at Griffith University in his native Brisbane. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Maureen Coetzee has also had a stellar career in medical entomology. She started as an assistant to Botha de Meillon working on the taxonomy of mosquitoes and Ceratopogonidae under Botha, the Old Master. She worked for her M.Sc. and Ph.D. under Hugh's supervision. Her appointments have included leading the Vector Control Reference Unit of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in South Africa, and at present she holds the Research Chair in Medical Entomology and Vector Control in the School of Pathology of the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Both Maureen and Dave remain extremely active. Hugh found that working on the species-status of the vectors of human plasmodia had a wonderfully sobering effect on one's attitude to species. One comes to realize that this is not some sort of competitive activity, or a matter of dogma or fashion; understanding the nature of species can literally be a matter of life and death for thousands of people. Hugh married Joan Shirley Martin on 21 February 1953 and they have two children, Margaret Ann Paterson and Michael Norman Paterson.
What was regarded as An. marshallii in fact comprises a species complex of at least three species –An. marshallii s. str, An. hughi and An. letabensis, with the possibility of a fourth species provisionally called Lambert's species E of the An. marshallii species complex (See entry kosiensis). Previously the morphological differences observed in An. marshallii were considered to be intraspecific variations but it is now clear that the differences are interspecific. Using chromosomally identified individuals to ascertain that they were An. hughi allowed the search for morphological differences between this species and the very similar An. marshallii and An. letabensis. It was shown using statistical techniques such as discriminate function analysis that adults of An. hughi seem to differ from An. marshallii by having the apical dark band of the palps about equal in width to the adjacent pale bands, and by having the pale banding on the hind tarsomeres more prominent than in either An. marshallii or An. letabensis. Pupae can be distinguished by a combination of differences in the number of branches of various setae, while the fourth instar larvae differ from those of An. marshallii and An. letabensis by seta 4–C (posterior clypeal hair) being single and by the number of branches in other setae. Eggs of An. hughi differ from both of the other two species by having a continuous open deck between the well separated floats. However, most life-stages can only be identified with certainty by the banding pattern of the ovarian polytene chromosomes. Very little is known about the biology of An. hughi but larval habitats appear to be the same as those of An. marshallii, namely running waters with large areas of vegetation. Adults females are exophilic and have been caught blood-feeding on animals outdoors. Anopheles hughi is only known from the Transvaal, South Africa.
Reinert 1997. pp. 15–18. In Reinert, Kaiser and Seawright. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 13: (Supplement) 1–102.
Name“The species name inundatus is of Latin origin and refers to the habitat of this species, i.e., the overflowed or inundated flood plains along rivers.” Formerly Anopheles quadrimaculatus species C of Narang et al. 1990.
This species is in the An. quadrimaculatus species complex which comprises five species, namely An. quadrimaculatus s. str. and four new species An. diluvialis, An. inundatus, An. maverlius and An. smaragdinus. Anopheles inundatus is morphologically very close to An. diluvialis. The types of An. inundatus were reared from a single F1 progeny brood of a female. Adult females can be identified by a combination of characters such as tibiae I and II and femora I and II being dark scaled and the dorsocentral area having golden piliform scales on the anterior margin. The genitalia of males is similar to that of An. diluvialis but can sometimes be distinguished by lacking a sub-basal depression on the lateral margin of sternum VII. Pupae can usually be identified by mainly setal characters. For example they can be separated from those of An. diluvialis by the sum of the branches of seta 10–CT usually being 6–12 compared with 2–5 in An. diluvialis. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by mainly setal characters such as both seta 8–II together with both seta 9–II having 26–40 branches, and both seta 2–I and both seta 9–I having 25–35 branches. Taxonomic keys are presented for the identification of adults, pupae and larvae which also give percentages of the reliability of taxonomic characters used in identifying An. inundatus. There are also tentative keys that appear to identify the eggs, but sample sizes were small. Electrophoretic methods seemed superior to polytene chromosomes in distinguishing the five species in the An. quadrimaculatus species complex. A biochemical key is given that identifies adult An. inundatus. Larvae were collected from temporary pools in heavily shaded swamps adjacent to or near rivers, and from waters with floating leaves and small twigs at the edges of the shoreline, or near logs or at the bases of trees. Adults were found resting in large rot holes in trees and from underneath bridges. Known from Florida, Georgia and Louisiana.
Schmidt 2003. pp. 517–519. In Schmidt, Foley, Bugoro and Bryan. Bulletin of Entomological Research 93: 515–526.
Name“The species name is derived from the Greek eir ēnikos, aiming at peace. Evidence to date indicates that this species does not bite humans but lives in peaceful coexistence. We fervently hope that peace will reign for all inhabitants of the beautiful Solomon Islands.” This is one of the more unusual dedications I have seen. Formerly An. farauti No. 7 of Foley et al. (1994) identified as a new species by cross mating, cytogenetics and allozyme techniques.
Anopheles irenicus is one of six species on the Solomon Islands belonging to the An. punctulatus species group. Of the three species of the An. farauti species complex found on the Solomon Islands, namely An. farauti, An. hinesorum and An. irenicus it seems that An. farauti and An. irenicus are the most closely related. Adults with associated larval and pupal exuvia were reared from larvae collected on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. Taxonomic keys are presented to identify the larvae, pupae and adults of the six An. punctulatus species group found in the Solomon Islands. A combination of morphological characters help distinguish the adults, pupae and fourth instar larvae of An. irenicus from other species of the An. punctulatus species group in the Solomon islands. The reliability of the keys in correctly identifying An. irenicus varies from about 81–100%. Apart from cross mating experiments the only reliable methods for identifying this species relies on chromosomal and allozyme techniques. Larvae are found in freshwater pools and other ground collections of water, although in the laboratory 90% of larvae survived a salinity test that has been used to identify An. farauti larvae which are often found in salt waters. Whereas An. farauti is a malaria vector, An. irenicus is zoophagic and is not a vector. Anopheles irenicus is only known from Guadalcanal which is the largest island of the Solomon Islands, famous for the pivotal Battle of Guadalcanal during World War II.
Wilkerson and Sallum. 2009 pp. 846–848. In Motoki, Wilkerson and Sallum. Memóris Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 104: 823–850. Formerly species E of Lehr et al. (2005).
Name“We are pleased to honor Jan Conn, collaborator, respected scientist, poet and friend, for her outstanding contributions to the advancement of medical entomology, especially on population genetics and phylogeography of species of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus).”
Jan E. Conn was born on 8 July 1952 in the small mining town of Asbestos in the Eastern Townships of southeastern Quebec, Canada. Her first degree, in 1972, was in General Arts at the Concordia University Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (CEGEP) in Montreal. After working as a pharmaceutical laboratory technician (1972–1973), and traveling alone to Peru and Bolivia in 1973, Jan returned to Concordia University in Montreal and began to study biology, gaining her B.S. degree (cum laude) in 1977. In 1981 she also received a M.S. from Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, in entomology (forest ecology and pheromones of bark beetles), and then a Ph.D. from the University of Toronto in 1987. This was on the cytogenetics of simuliids (black flies), vectors of the parasitic nematode, Onchocerca volvulus which causes onchocerciasis. For this doctoral work she undertook extensive field work in Guatemala and southern Mexico. Jan switched to studying anopheline mosquito vectors when she was offered a postdoctoral position at the Universidad Central de Venezuela in Caracas (1988–1990). A postdoctoral fellowship at the United States Department of Agriculture in Gainesville, Florida (1990–1991) was followed by a postdoctoral position at the University of Florida, Gainesville until 1994. Later that year, the Biology Department at the University of Vermont hired her as an assistant professor and she received tenure there in 2000. In 2002 she was hired as a research scientist and associate professor at the Wadsworth Center New York State Department of Health, with a joint appointment at the School of Public Health, State of New York at Albany, where she is currently a professor in the Biomedical Sciences Department. She continues to work on mosquito population genetics and systematics in Latin America, especially in Brazil, Colombia and Panama. Jan began to do field work in Latin America in the early 1980's and speaks fluent Spanish and slightly less fluent Portuguese. During her time at the University of Vermont she also worked on Tahitian blackflies and a species (Simulium connae, Craig 1997) was named in her honor. This is something of a family tradition, as her father, noted mining engineer H. Keith Conn, discovered a new mineral, Keithconnite, in Montana, U.S.A. Jan is also a lyrical and narrative poet. Her seventh collection, Botero's Beautiful Horses, was published by Brick Books, Canada, in 2009. A book, Jaguar Rain (Brick Books, 2006), focussed on the extraordinary, British-born naturalist and botanical illustrator, Margaret Mee. In 2000, Jan also published a selected and new volume of poetry, Beauties on Mad River, with Vehicule Press, Montreal. Her poems have been published in many literary journals and anthologies, in Canada, Great Britain, Ireland and the United States. Her web site is http://www.janconn.com. In 1998 she married the evolutionary biologist Carl D. Schlichting, they live at Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
Anopheles janconnae is a species in the An. albitarsus species complex. All five species in the complex are difficult to identify because of their similarities. Consequently, statistical methods such as principal component analysis and discriminate and cluster analyses were used to assess the reliability of morphological characters of adult females. Molecular identification techniques such as random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) were used to aid identification. Several characters such as wing length, length of veins R4 + 5 (vein 3), length of several wing spots and length of hindtarsomere 2 were measured for the five species in the An. albitarsis species complex, namely An. albitarsis, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. janconnae and An. oryzalimnetes. There was considerable overlap in the morphometric data of these five species. However, the ratio of the length of the basal dark portion of hindtarsomere 2 and the length of the hindtarsomere differs in An. marajoara (mean = 0.48), An. oryzalimnetes (mean = 0.42) and An. janconnae (mean = 0.39), thus aiding identification. Additionally the mean lengths of the 1st dark spot on vein CuA and the humeral dark spot on the costa are longer in An. janconnae than in the other species of the complex. Adult male genitalia of An. janconnae are similar to those of An. albitarsis but can be distinguished by several characters such as the lengths of the parabasal spine and gonocoxite. In addition An. janconnae can be identified by molecular characterization. Pupae and larvae are unknown. Very little is known about the ecology of this species but adult females of An. janconnae are anthropophagic. Adults are considered to be important malaria vectors of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. This species is found in Northern Brazil and in Venezuela.
Lei 1996. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 15: 1–4. (In Chinese, and a brief English summary).
Name Although not stated, I imagine this species is named after the type locality Julian, and Latinized.
Junlian is a town in Junlian County (lat. 28° 13’, long. 104° 48’) and is part of Yibin Prefecture within Sichuan Province of China. Junlian is situated at an elevation of 568 m, covers an area of 1302 km and has a population of about 37,600 people and several factories. Yibin lies 38 km to the north while Yanjin is 28 km to the West. Nearby is Junlian karst, an area having a series of scenic limestone peaks with several caves such as the Mandarin Duck Cave and the Fairy Cave, and hot springs such as Haiyinchao spring. On 22 July 2006, Yibin and the surrounding area suffered an earthquake of 5.2 on the Richter scale. The earthquake toppled at least 1,400 houses and sent large boulders tumbling down the hillsides onto residential areas in the mountainous southern regions of the Yunnan Provence. The earthquake killed 16 people and injured 60.
Anopheles junlianensis is morphologically similar to An. pullus (the author uses the specific name An. yatsushiroensis Miyazaki 1951 in this paper but this is now regarded as probably a junior synonym of An. pullus Yamada 1937: see Wilkerson, Li, Rueda et al. (2003). Female adults differ from those of An. pullus in the arrangement of pale scales on the palps, subcostal wing vein and vein 1, while adult males differ in the structure of the parabasal spine of the genitalia. Pupae are said to be identified by the average number of branches on setae 2–III and 2–IV, while fourth instar larvae are distinguished from An. pullus by seta 2–C (inner clypeal hair) having less than 30 branches and the mesothoracic seta 2–M mostly with several branches. However, there seems to be considerable overlap in these taxonomic characters. No information is given on the ecology of An. junlianensis except that five adults were collected from a cowshed. Known only from Junlian County, China. Considered by Qu and Zhu (2008) to be a junior synonym of An. yatsushiroensis.
Rueda 2005. Zootaxa 941: 1–26.
Name“The species is named after Colonel Terry A. Klein, medical entomologist, for his numerous contributions to mosquito research in Asia.” Formerly Anopheles“unknown sp. Korea” of Wilkerson et al. 2005: 9 (rDNA ITS sequence): and Anopheles“unknown 1” of Li et al. 2005 (rDNA ITS2 sequence).
Terry Allen Klein was born on 1 June 1946 and grew up on a dairy farm near Salem, Oregon, and from 1964–1968 attended Oregon College of Education (now Western Oregon College) and then from 1972–1975 attended Oregon State University and obtained his M.S. degree. After graduation he returned to his high school, Cascade Union High, in Turner, Oregon where he taught earth sciences. In 1969 he joined the U.S. Army National Guard (reserve) and from September 1970 to March 1971 attended basic and advanced individual training (infantry) where he was awarded the outstanding trainee award. After six months of active duty, he returned to Cascade to teach biological sciences. During that time, he became interested in insects, such as collecting larvae of butterflies and rearing out adults, but sometimes parasitic flies and wasps emerged instead of butterflies. In 1972 he received a grant to attend Oregon State University where he worked on the taxonomy of a group of leafhoppers (Aphrodes spp.) under Dr. Paul Oman, a renowned taxonomist, where Terry had his first experience in taxonomy. After graduation and with little work experience in entomology, he decided to join the U.S. Army to receive further training in entomology with the original intent of staying just three years and then getting a job as a civilian. However, after his first assignment in 1976–1978 at Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center, Denver, Colorado, he was assigned to the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Bangkok, Thailand, where he had the opportunity to work under Dr. Bruce Harrison, who mentored him in mosquito taxonomy and infectious diseases. It was Dr. Harrison who provided the basis for his continued interest and support in the identification and taxonomy of anopheline mosquitoes, and cross mating studies with An. philippinensis and An. nivipes to resolve taxonomic issues. In 1982–1985, following his assignment in Thailand, he attended the University of Florida where he identified the vector of malaria (Plasmodium floridense) in the green sanole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) and confirmed the vector (Lutzomyia vexator) of malaria (P. mexicanum) in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) through transmission studies under the guidance of Drs. Martin Young and David Young. During this period Terry developed a close working relationship with Dr. Richard Wilkerson, who he has since continued to work with at the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit on malaria vector distributions and taxonomy in Korea. After graduating from the University of Florida in 1995 with a Ph.D. in medical entomology, Terry was assigned to the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit-Brazil, where he conducted malaria studies in the Amazon Basin. As a result of mentoring from Dr. Harrison, Dr. Wilkerson, and E.L. Peyton, he collected, curated, and reared, numerous anopheline and culicine mosquitoes that provided material to study species complexes of anophelines in South America, this being in addition to his malaria work. In 1990 he left Brazil and was assigned to the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, where he managed the malaria and mosquito repellent programs. Then in 1994 he was assigned as Commander, 5th Medical Detachment, Korea, where vivax malaria after having been eradicated in the 1970s had re-emerged in 1993 in a Korean soldier and rapidly spread to U.S. army personnel and to the Korean civilian population. He conducted surveys and provided reports to the 18th Medical Command and Eighth U.S. Army, Korea, over the summer of 1995 and identified important measures needed to reduce malaria risks. In November 1995 Terry was assigned to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Fort Detrick, Maryland, where he conducted field studies in the Amazon Basin of Peru. While there he worked closely with Dr. Wilkerson and his staff and set up a program to collect, rear, and curate specimens for taxonomic studies. In 1999 he returned to Korea as the Entomology Consultant, 18th Medical Command, and later became the Deputy Chief of Staff, Force Health Protection. He worked closely with Dr. Heung-Chul Kim, 5th Medical Detachment, and began rearing anophelines for taxonomic studies. At that time, based on published reports An. sinensis was considered the primary vector of malaria in Korea. After rearing several generations of An. sinensis he determined that two species, An. sinensis and An. lesteri based on current keys, were from the same progeny brood. He discussed his findings with Dr. Wilkerson and Dr. Leopoldo Rueda, then reared more progeny broods, and sent specimens to the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit where PCR techniques identified two new species and showed that members of the An. sinensis species group could not be identified by morphological characteristics. Combining this information with the distribution of malaria, he concluded that the primary vectors of malaria were one new species, named in 2005 as An. kleini, and An. pullus, while An. sinensis which was the most common anopheline south of Seoul was a secondary vector. Terry retired in June 2006 and was awarded the Legion of Merit for his more than 30 years of outstanding military service. He lives in Korea but now has a second career working as the Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Consultant, 65th Medical Brigade, funded by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Silver Spring, Maryland. While in Korea, his entomological role expanded and with his many Korean and U.S. collaborators, he has worked on malaria, Japanese encephalitis, hantaviruses, scrub typhus, and other rickettsial rodent- and tick-borne diseases. In 2005, when four soldiers caught Korean hemorrhagic fever he was instrumental in identifying where they had contracted the infection. He has published over 120 scientific papers. He is Clinical Professor 2009–2011 at the University of Korea and on 7th April 2006 he received the Republic of Korea's Presidential Award for his “significant contribution to entomology in Korea.” He lives in Korea with his wife, Kyung-Hee Shin, and has six children, Kevin Dale Klein (son), Arron Raymond Klein (son), Michelle Renee Zwan (daughter), Robert Allen Klein (son), Soo-Hun Kim (son) and Soo-Yun Kim (daughter).
Anopheles kleini female adults can be distinguished from those of An. belenrae and other similar species by a combination of morphological features, such as palpal segment 3 having a narrow basal pale band about as wide as the pale bands of the other palpal segments, and vein Cu2 (vein 5.2) with an apical pale fringe spot. Adult males can be identified by various structures in the genitalia, such as the dorsal lobe of the claspette having 3 closely appressed setae of about equal length, and the aedeagus having 5 leaflets on each side. Pupae and larvae are morphologically difficult to distinguish from the pupae and larvae of the other similar species, and so need a combination of characters to correctly identify An. kleini. However, the most reliable method for identifying An. kleini is by the ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequence of Li et al. (2005). Nothing is known about the biology of the immature stages. Adults were collected from cow sheds in villages with ricefields. Known only from the Republic of South Korea.
Vythilingam, Jeffery and Harbach 2007. pp. 464–467. In Vythilingam, Jeffery, Harbach, Chan, Tan and Asmad. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 10: 463–468.
Name“It is a pleasure to dedicate this species to Dr. Ng. Kok Han, Director of the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, in recognition of his tremendous support for the Institute's research activities.”
Dr. Ng Kok Han was born on 12th July 1952 in Klang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. The fourth son of a family of seven boys and two girls, Kok Han received his primary and secondary education at the Klang High School (1959–1971). The year 1972 was a turning point when Kok Han decided to pursue a career in dentistry firstly at the National University of Singapore and then from 1973–1976 at the University of Malaya. He was among the first batch of dental undergraduates to qualify with the Bachelor of Dental Surgery from the University of Malaya in 1976. He served briefly as a Dental Officer at the Oral Surgery Unit, General Hospital Kuala Lumpur before joining the Unit of Stomatology at the Institute for Medical Research on 1st April 1977 firstly as a trainee Oral Pathologist, after which he remained until 2006. In 1979, Kok Han was sent by the Government of Malaysia for postgraduate training in the United Kingdom. He successfully obtained his Fellowship in Dental Surgery from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow in 1981, Master of Science (Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine), at the Eastman Dental Institute, University of London in 1982, and was among the first to qualify in 1994 by examination the membership and then in 2002 the fellowship of the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom. Between the years 1982 and 2004, Kok Han served as Head of the Unit of Stomatology, Head of Cancer Research Center and then as Director at the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from the years 2004–2006. His main research interests are in oral precancers and cancers, and odontogenic neoplasms. He has authored numerous articles and lectured extensively at home and internationally. Kok Han served as President of the Malaysian Dental Association in the year 2000–2001. Kok Han lives in Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan with his wife Siar Chong Huat who was his classmate and is also an oral pathologist by training and currently Professor and Chair at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Kok Han and his wife married in March 1976 and have two children, Ng Yee Boon a son born in 1979 and a daughter Ng Bee Choo born in 1982.
Adult females can be distinguished from other species in the Neomyzomyia Series in the Oriental region by having four pale bands on the palps and the anal wing vein with three dark areas; and from species in the An. leucospyrus species group by a combination of characters such as legs speckled with pale scales and the hindtarsi mainly dark scaled but with narrow apical pale bands. Adult males, pupae, larvae and eggs are unknown. Adult females were collected in forests of Sarawak and also from inside and outside a house about 5 km from the edge of the forest on cleared land growing fruit trees. Anopheles kokhani is anthropophagic and a peridomestic species. Adults that were dissected showed no malarial oocysts or sporozoites and no microfilaria. Only known from Sarawak.
Coetzee, Segerman and Hunt 1987. Systematic Entomology 12: 23–28. Ward (1992), page 181.
Name Derivation not explained but most likely named after a Latinization of Kosi as in Kosi Bay, South Africa. Formerly Lambert's species E of the An. marshalli group (1981).
Kosi Bay is a series of four interlinked lakes in the extreme north eastern corner of KwaZulu-Natal, and is part of The Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the first such Site in South Africa. It covers 11,000 ha and stretches from Zilonde Lake on the Mozambique border in the north to Lake Amanzimnyama in the south. The Elephant Coast, so named because it contains the largest herd of indigenous African elephants, extending from Lake Lucia in the south to Kosi Bay, is a well known tourist attraction. Ecologically the area is important as it has the rare palm-nut vulture (Gypohierax angolensis) and the breeding places of the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles. It is also one of two areas in South Africa where raphia palms (Raphia australis) are to be found. These plants have the largest leaves of any plant. The swamp forests in the Kosi Bay area are the largest in the country. This is the only place in South Africa where there are five species of mangrove, including Lumnitzera racemosa and Ceriops tagal. Kosi Bay has a large variety of fish including eight species that are listed in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red Data Book (Fish), a publication which lists species that are under threat and need to be preserved. Other wildlife comprises 97 species of terrestrial mammals, including elephants, black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceroses, the marsh mongoose (Atilax paludinosus) and the clawless otter (Aony capensis) as well as 32 marine mammals. There are about 521 bird species which include the crab plover (Dromas ardeola), several flufftail species including the very rare white-wing flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi). There are 50 amphibian and 109 reptilian species. There are also 196 species of butterflies including a skipper butterfly (Parnara micans) that is endemic to Kosi Bay and the rare and endangered flame-bordered emperor butterfly (Charaxes protoclea azota).
Adults of An. kosensis closely resemble those of An. hughi and it was considered there were no reliable methods to distinguish adults of these two species, and also no reliable methods to identify fourth instar larvae or eggs of An. kosiensis. However, pupae of these two species can be separated by a few setal differences. Polytene chromosomes that were obtained from half-gravid females appear to differ from other closely related species in the An. marshalli species complex by an inversion on the × chromosome. In conclusion it appears that the only reliable method of identifying An. kosiensis is by its chromosomes. Blood-fed adults were collected from the same cattle enclosure from which adults of An. namibiensis were first found, apart from this little is known about the behavior of adults. Larval habitats remain unknown. Anopheles kosiensis is known only from Kosi Bay, South Africa.
Dong and Wang 1985. Zoological Research 6: 117–122. (In Chinese, short English summary). Ward (1992), page 179.
Name Derivation of the name not stated but probably named after the locality of Kunming prefecture and Latinized.
Kunming prefecture is the capital of Yunnan Province in southwestern China. It is at an altitude of 1,900 m and situated just north of the Tropic of Cancer. Because of its temperate climate throughout the year it is known as the “Spring City” or “City of Eternal Spring.” Kunming covers an area of about 21,600 km2 and has a population of about 5,750,000, but this is expected to double within a few years. It has several cultural and educational institutions, museums and two universities. On top of Mingfeng Hill on the outskirts of the city stands the famous Bronze or Golden Temple built in 1602 in the Ming dynasty during the reign of Emperor Wanli but in 1637 it was moved to Jizu mountain in western Yunnan. Its bell, weighing 250 tons, was cast 1671 and is the largest architectural bronze in China. Inside the temple is a statue of the Emperor Zhengwu, with a Gold Boy and a Gold Girl on either side dominating the altar. A fierce tortoise and a snake guard the altar. Historically, Kunming profited from its position on the caravan routes through southeast Asia, India and Tibet. Much more recently in 1908 Kunming became a treaty port open to foreign trade and soon became a thriving commercial center. Then in the 1930s the first roads were built linking the city with Chongqing in Sichuan and Guiyang in Guizhou in the east. Kunming is situated in a fertile lake basin on the northern shore of Lake Dian and is surrounded by mountains to the north, west and east. Lake Dian (“the Pearl of the Plateau”) is the sixth largest freshwater late in China and covers about 340 km2. Unfortunately in recent years it has become highly polluted, because in the 1990s wastewater from Kunming was pumped into the lake. Kunming is rich in mineral deposits especially phosphorus, coal and salt. It is one of China's largest producers of copper. It is also a horticultural center in China, producing cereals, peaches, apples, oranges, grapes etc. It has become world famous for its flowers and their export, the famous six are the camellia, yulan magnolia, azalea, fairy primrose, lilies and orchids. For many years hundreds of thousand of Siberian seagulls or Vegar gulls (Larus vegae) have flown from Siberia to the city every winter on their migration southwards and this spectacular scene attracts many tourists.
This new species belongs to the An. hyrcanus species group and is morphologically close to An. sinensis but was said to differ from this species in all life-stages. For example adult females differ by having three dark spots on vein 6 and four basal pale bands on hind tarsal segment 4, while adult males differ from An. sinensis by the number and shape of the phallosome leaflets and by the dorsal lobe of the clasper having three clubs. Pupae differ in having the wing cases without any spots. Fourth instar larvae differ by having seta 2–C (inner clypeal hair) with 2–5 branches and the eggs of An. kunmingensis differ in having a narrower deck. No information is given in the English summary on the biology of this species. Considered to be a junior synonym of An. liangshanensis by Ma et al. (2000) and Qu and Zhu (2008).
Sallum and Peyton 2005. pp.160–165. In Sallum, Peyton and Wilkerson. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19: 158–199.
Name“The name latens is from Latin meaning concealed, secret, hidden, latent.” Formerly An. leucosphyrus species A of Baimai et al. (1988).
Morphological studies on the An. leucosphyrus species complex in the 1980s culminated in Baimai (1988) finding cytogenetic differences among geographically separated populations of An. leucosphyrus s. l. Specimens found in Borneo, west Malaysia and southern Thailand were designated as An. leucospyrus A (now An. latens) while those confined to Sumatra were designated An. leucospyrus s. str. The An. leucosphyrus species complex comprises four species, An. leucosphyrus s. str., An. balabacensis, An. introlatus and An. latens. This last species is morphologically closer in all life stages to An. leucosphyrus than to any other species of the complex. Adult females and males of An. latens are indistinguishable from those of An. leucosphyrus, however, they can be separated from An. introlatus and An. balabacensis by the PSD (presector dark spot) on vein R (radius and cell) extending basally to or beyond the level of the HD (humeral) spot on the costa, and by the apical pale bands of palpomere 5 being cream-colored or yellowish thus contrasting with the silvery bands on palpomeres 2 and 3. It is difficult to separate pupae of An. leucosphyrus from those of An. latens, while fourth instar larvae are inseparable. But as these two species are allopatric in their distribution this should serve as a means of identification. In Thailand, larvae of An. latens were collected from a variety of habitats such as ground pools along stream margins, seepage pools, sandy pools in stream banks, shallow flowing streams and elephant footprints. These habitats were partially or heavily shaded in primary or secondary rain forests at elevations from 76–520 m above sea level. In west Malaysia, immature stages were found in a muddy pool in a cart tract running through dense jungle and in a water-filled longitudinal half of a bamboo stem on the ground, and in jungle streams in Selangor. Adults are anthropophagic and were caught in bait collections biting humans in secondary evergreen forest and also in secondary rain forest having fruit, orchards or rubber plantations. These sites were often near human habitations in villages, valleys or in mountainous or hilly areas. It appears that adults are important malaria vectors and in Sarawak, also transmit bancroftian filariasis. Found only in Borneo, west Malaysia and southern Thailand.
Lambert and Coetzee 1982. Systematic Entomology 7: 321–332.
Name Not stated but Dr. Maureen Coetzee tells me that “The name letabensis is from Letaba District in the northern Province of Limpopo, S.A.” Formerly Lambert's species A of the marshallii complex (1979).
Letaba District is in the northern Province of Limpopo in South Africa and incorporates the lush valley of the Letaba River and the rugged Magoebaskloof mountains. The capital, Tzaneen, is situated in the scenic Letaba valley at an elevation of 724 m and the Magoebaskloof mountains which have the spectacular Debengeni Falls. The historic town of Haenertsburg, situated between Tzaneen and Polokane, was established in 1887 during the gold-rush period. Remains of some of the old mines can still be seen in the area. Tzaneen is in a beautiful subtropical area and is the largest town in Letaba District with a population of about 80,000 people. The area is also known as the “Valley of the Oliphant's” and is just an hour's drive from the famous Kruger Park, and I can vouch for the claim that Letaba Camp alongside the Letaba River is one of the best places to see elephants and other large mammals. The area is also rich in bird life and flowers. Close by is the Modjadji Cycad Forest Reserve which has the largest number of Modjadji cycads (Encephalartos transvenosus). Cycads can live hundreds of years and attain heights of 8 m. This species, E. transvenosus, is one of the fastest growing cycads with leaves growing to about a 1 m in four or five years. Cycads have been called living fossils, originating some 50–60 million years ago. The subtropical climate and high rainfall of Letaba District make it ideal for growing subtropical fruit such as mangos, litchis, avocados, kiwis, tomatoes, bananas, citrus fruit, cherries, papayas, and nuts such as pecans and macadamia. It is also the only tea-growing area in South Africa.
The type series is the progeny of a single wild-caught female which was chromosomally identified as An. letabensis. Adult females closely resemble those of An. marshallii but the palps have the subapical dark band very narrow and the pale bands on the tarsomeres are more prominent. The pupae are similar to those of An. marshallii but the paddle has a lateral fringe of more than 20 very fine hairs beyond the apical hair. Fourth instar larvae of An. letabensis can usually be separated from those of An. marshallii, by having seta 4–C (posterior clypeal hair) being single and seta 15–C with 3–5 branches, and from An. hughi by seta 2–P having 8–13 branches and seta 13–II also with 8–13 branches but they are half the size of those in An. marshallii and An. letabensis. Eggs of An. letabensis can be distinguished by the floats being well separated and having two decks. However, the only confident way of identifying An. letabensis is by the banding patterns of the polytene chromosomes obtained from the ovarian nurse cells. Larval habitats are similar to those of An. marshallii. Adults are sometimes collected resting in houses, or biting humans out of doors. Widespread from Ethiopia southwards to eastern Transvaal. Found at lower altitudes than An. marshallii but occasionally occurs at higher altitudes such as Salisbury, Zimbabwe.
Kang, Tan, Cao, Cheng, Yang and Huang 1984. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 3: 11–14. (In Chinese, short English summary). Ward (1992), page 179.
Name Derivation not stated, but I imagine it was named after the town of Liangshan Yi in Sichuan Province and Latinized to become liangshanensis.
Liangshan Yi was established as an Autonomous Region of China in 1952 and later became an Autonomous Prefecture. Liangshan Yi is situated in southwest Sichuan Province between the northern Hengduan Mountains on the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. It borders the Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the north while on the east, west and south there is Yunnan Province. The northwest part of the Prefecture is mountainous and hilly and comprises over 90% of the land (60,423 km2). Most of the mountain peaks are more than 4,000 m above the sea level. Interspersed with the mountains are deep valleys constituting a unique topographic landscape of plateau and savanna in the dry-hot river valley of Liangshan Yi. There are 4.35 million people in the Prefecture of which 1.97 million are of Yi nationality. Xichang city is the capital of the state and rises to 1,500 m above sea level. It has a very temperate climate, with usually clear skies and a bright moon resulting in the city being called “Moon City” and “Small Spring City”. Xichang city is well known as being China's Spaceflight City. The facility became operational in 1984 and is primarily used to launch powerful thrust rockets and geostationary communications and weather satellites. In 1996, a fatal accident occurred when the rocket carrying the Intelsat 708 satellite failed on its launch from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. It is notable as the site of Sino-European space cooperation, with the launch of the first of two Double Star scientific satellites in December 2003. The Liangshan Torch Festival, called Duzai in the Yi language, is the most important traditional holiday for the Yi people. One of several explanations of its origins is that in antiquity the Yi people held torches to eliminate pests and defeat the heavenly gods. The Anning River Basin, the second largest plain in Sichuan, together with the ‘Granary of South Sichuan’ are important agricultural areas with crops giving both quality and high yields. Numerous types of vegetables, fruit such as apples, oranges, pomegranates and navel oranges, and tobacco and sugar cane are also cultivated. There is also a thriving silkworm industry. There are more than 2,400 varieties of medicinal herbs growing in the area thus making the Prefecture a treasure trove of herbal medicine. The large numbers of forests provide much timber for both home use and export.
Anopheles liangshanensis is a species of the An. sinensis species group and morphologically is similar to An. sinensis and An. kweiyangensis, but is distinguished from these two species by mainly a combination of characters. These include adult females lacking a pale spot at the base of the costal vein, having three small dark areas on vein 6 and having transverse rectangular dark marks on the sternopleura. Adult males can be identified by the position and number of leaflets on the aedeagus. It seems that the pupae can be distinguished from those of An. sinensis and An. kweiyangensis by having just a “few” dark spots on the wing cases. Fourth instar larvae have seta 3–C (outer clypeal hair) with a tuft of 24 branches. Eggs can be identified by the width of their deck. Crossing experiments with An. kweiyangensis and An. sinensis showed reproductive isolation and thus confirmed that An. liangshanensis was a new species. No information is presented on the biology of An. liangshanensis or whether it is a disease vector. Apparently only known from Sichuan Province, China.
Gillies and Coetzee 1987 pp. 73–75. In Publication of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 55, 143 pp. Ward (1992), page 181.
Name Although not stated it is clear that this species is named in honor of L.P. Lounibos, an internationally renowned mosquito ecologist.
Leon Philip Lounibos (known familiarly as Phil) was born on 19 August 1947 in Petaluma, California, U.S.A., where he and six siblings enjoyed a rural life style close to nature that stimulated his insect collecting, especially moths. After four years of boarding at a Jesuit high school in San Jose, California, he matriculated to the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, where he majored in biology and was mentored by the mosquito biologist George Craig, who persuaded him that live mosquitoes were more interesting than dead moths. Formative experiences during his undergraduate period (1965–1969) included conducting research in Craig's laboratory and several summer work-study trips to South America, where, among other adventures, he surveyed triatomine vectors of Chagas disease in rural Bolivia. After graduating from Notre Dame, Phil entered the graduate program in biology at Harvard University, from which he received his Ph.D. in 1974, completing a thesis on cocoon construction by saturniid silkworms in the laboratory of Carroll Williams. During those years he also collaborated with William Bradshaw, at the time a Harvard postdoc, on studies of the ecology of Wyeomyia smithii, the North American pitcher plant mosquito. Shortly after completing his doctorate, Phil moved to Mombasa, Kenya to head the Mosquito Biology Unit and Coastal Research Station of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology. For three years (1974–1977) he directed field trials in Kenyan villages for the genetic control of Aedes aegypti, a project developed by his undergraduate mentor, George Craig. He also conducted ecological research on container-inhabiting mosquitoes of the Kenya coast, which led in 1976 to his discovery of the first Afrotropical anopheline whose immature stages were found only in plant axils. However, it was 10 years later before it was named by Gillies and Coetzee An. lounibosi in his honor. In 1977, Phil accepted a research position at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory (FMEL) in Vero Beach. After FMEL was transferred administratively in 1979 to the University of Florida (UF), Phil advanced through the tenure-track system to the rank of Professor in 1993. His research, mainly on mosquito ecology and behavior, led to two UF Research Foundation Professorship awards (1997–2000 and 2005–2008). His projects have been supported primarily from competitive grants awarded by the federal government (Department of Defense, National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health), including awards for research on the ecology and biosystematics of anopheline mosquitoes in South America. In addition to many publications (c. 125) in refereed journals, he co-edited two proceedings volumes: Phytotelmata: Terrestrial Plants as Hosts of Aquatic Insect Communities (1983) and Ecology of Mosquitoes: Proceedings of a Workshop (1985), both of which stimulated progress in mosquito ecology. Many of his research grants supported postdoctoral fellows and graduate students, who subsequently pursued independent careers in medical entomology. Phil has also served on many grant review panels, especially for NIH, and served as a subject editor for the Journal of Medical Entomology and for Ecology. Phil lives in Ft. Pierce, Florida with Julia Almond Lounibos, whom he married in 1998, and by earlier partners has two children, Andrew Pragnell (b.1977) and Andrea Lounibos (b. 1983).
The larvae of An. lounibosi were first collected by L.P. Lounibos and R. Subra from the axils of Pandanus rabaiensis in the Kombeni Forest near Rabai in the coastal Kilifi District of Kenya. When Lounibos (1979) published his studies on the ecology of mosquitoes breeding in these plant axils he referred to Anopheles larvae he had found, naming them Anopheles rabiensis White, in press. But no description of this species was published by G.B. White, so An. rabiensis became a nomen nudum. In 1987, eight years later, Gillies and Coetzee described this as a new species based on an apparently reared single female and a number of larvae. The closest species is An. rhodesiensis from which female adults of An. lounibosi are usually morphologically inseparable, but fourth instar larvae can be distinguished by having fewer branches in the frontal setae 5–C, 6–C and 7–C (inner, mid, outer frontal hairs). Eggs, pupae and male adults are unknown. Gillies and Coetzee failed to designate a type species and made no mention of the type depository in their original description of An. lounibosi. Townsend (1990 p. 96) suggested that the holotype might be in the ORSTOM collection at Bondy, Paris, France. However, a 1991 letter from M.T. Gillies stated that the holotype was a fourth instar larva which was deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, with the following label: “Anopheles rabaiensis, 28.vi.1977, coll. L.P. Lounibos in Pandanus rabaiensis, Kombeni R., Rabai, Kilifi Dist. KENYA” (Ward, 1992). Anopheles lounibosi is the first anopheline in Africa to have plant axils as its larval habitat. In Thailand An. sintonoides has been collected from Pandanus axils, but other anophelines in Pandanus are unknown. Nothing else is known about the biology of An. lounibosi. Only known from Rabai, Kilifi District, Kenya.
Reinert 1997 pp. 18–22. In Reinert, Kaiser and Seawright. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 13 (Supplement): 1–102.
Name“The species name marverlius was derived from the acronym for the Medical and Veterinary Entomology Research Laboratory (MAVERL) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), where most of the investigations on the new species of the Quadrimaculatus Complex were conducted. The MAVERL was combined with the USDA's Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology Research Laboratory in 1996 to form the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology. The name is taken as masculine in gender.” Formerly An. quadrimaculatus species D of Narang et al. (1993).
This species is in the An. quadrimaculatus species complex which comprises five species, namely An. quadrimaculatus s. str. and four new species An. diluvialis, An. inundatus, An. maverlius and An. smaragdinus. The type series of An. maverlius was reared from a single F1 progeny of a female. Adult females can be identified by a combination of characters such as tibiae I and II being dark scaled, femora I and II having pale scales apically and the dorsocentral area has golden piliform scales on the anterior margin. Adult males have the apical margin of tergum VIII with a moderately deep depression and the gonosylus usually has distally an irregular line of very small setae but a large proximal area devoid of setae. Pupae need a combination of characters for their identification, such as the dorsal apotome having a well developed median apical projection and tergum VIII with the posterolateral corner moderately pigmented. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by mainly setal characters, such as sum of both seta 1–A with usually 18–29 branches and sum of both seta 8–III together with both seta 8–VI usually with 19–28 branches. Taxonomic keys are presented for the identification of adults, pupae and larvae which also give percentages of the reliability of taxonomic characters used in identifying An. malverlius. There are also tentative keys that appear to identify the eggs, but sample sizes were small. Electrophoretic methods seemed superior to polytene chromosomes in distinguishing the five species in the An. quadrimaculatus species complex. A biochemical key is given that identifies adult An. malverlius. The type series of An. maverlius were collected from a very large rot cavity in a large live oak tree, situated about 30 m from the western margin of the Choctawhatchee River located about 1.6 km north of the Florida State Highway 20 bridge; the nearest town was Bruce, Walton County, Florida. Larval habitats include margins of wooded drainage ditches and other ground water collections. Adults were commonly found in large tree holes, but also from under bridges and the eaves of buildings which were usually near flooded areas, rivers or reservoirs.
Lee, D.J. et al. 1988. The Culicidae of Australia 6: 124 pp. See page 69. Ward (1992), page 210.
Name Derivation not clearly stated but clearly from the Greek word melanos and the New Latin word tarsus.
Anopheles melanotarsis relates to a single female from Charters Towers in Queensland, Australia which could not be identified to any known species. It was informally named melanotarsis, clearly meaning black tarsi, pending further investigations of its taxonomic status. Taxonomic characters were presented that apparently distinguished it from all known Australian species in the subgenus Cellia. An attempt to re-examine this specimen in 1970 was unrewarding as there was no longer a mosquito on the appropriate pin, although the label was present. As the name was never validly published it has no scientific status and thus is a nomen nudum.
Ma, Sufang, 1981a. Entomotaxonomia 3: 277–279. Ward (1984), page 229.
Name Derivation of name not stated, but as the type locality is Menglang it seems likely that it was named after this town. However, in Ward (1984) the species name is spelt as An. mengalangensis and the type locality is given as Mengalang. Also in the Index of currently recognized mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by Harbach and Howard (2007) the names of the species and locality are again spelled incorrectly. Wilkerson perpetuates these spelling errors in his Mosquito Classification – 2010. (). The correct spelling is of course An. menglangensis as used by Ma (1981a) when she described the new species, and later spelled correctly by Qu and Zhu (2008).
Menglang town is small with a population of about 8,000. It is situated in Lancong County in Yunnan Province, latitude 22.53° and longitude 99.93°. It borders Myanmar in the East and Laos and Vietnam in the South and is at an altitude of 1,186 m. Historically China has suffered from endemic malaria over much of the country and the malaria incidence remained high in many areas until the 1950s when due to integrated control measures it began to decline. One such instance was observed in Menglang. Malaria surveillance in 20 villages and one town having a total population of 18,468 was carried out for seven years. The main vector, Anopheles minimus, remained at a low level, with the vector density in houses averaging 0.002% per person in 1980 and 0.001% in 1982. The highest annual parasite incidence of 0.92% occurred in 1982. Malaria cases microscopically confirmed totalled 45, comprising 39 imported cases and six autochthonous cases. All the imported cases were given curative treatment which effectively prevented malaria transmission among the local people. Indirect fluorescent antibody tests were performed on school children and the results revealed that the 304 and 1,232 children treated in 1981 and 1982 were parasite negative.
Anopheles menglangensis is morphologically close to An. wellingtonianus and An. lindesayi but can be distinguished by a combination of characters, such as adult females of An. menglangensis and An. lindesayi lack a subcostal pale spot whereas it is present in An. wellingtonianus, and in An. menglangensis the palps are considerably more shaggy than in the other two species. In adult males of An. menglangensis the phallosome has 8–10 leaflets on each side, one of which is outstandingly larger and broad, whereas in An. wellingtonianus there are 18 leaflets and 18–20 or more leaflets in An. lindesayi. The immature stages are unknown. Little seems to be known about the biology of An. menglangensis but adults were found at 620 m whereas the other two species were found at 1,300 m. Known only from Menglang, Yunnan Province, China.
Sallum and Peyton 2005. pp. 189–194. In Sallum, Peyton and Wilkerson. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19: 158–199. Formerly Anopheles leucosphyrus var. elegans of Cogill (1903).
Name“The name mirans is derived from the Latin ‘mirari’ meaning to wonder at, look at.”
This species belongs to the An. leucosphyrus species group and has most commonly been misidentified as An. elegans. Adult females and males can be identified by a combination of characters, such as the proboscis being longer than the forefemur and also longer than the palps, and by the dark and pale scaling of the wing veins. It seems that pupae cannot be differentiated from other closely related species. Fourth instar larvae can be recognized by a combination of mainly setal characters such as seta 5–C (outer frontal hair) is much longer than the antennae, seta 4–C (posterior clypeal hair) is long and extends well beyond the base of seta 2–C (inner clypeal hair). Larvae have been collected from a variety of small and large ground pools, such as ditches, car tracks and animal footprints, and in wells, rock pools and swamps, usually in semi- or full shade. In Sri Lanka they are found up to 900 m above sea level. Adults appear to be non-anthropophagic and as adults transmit simian malaria they must feed on monkeys, at least to some extent. Although this species in not a vector of infections to humans it seems that it may be a vector of primate malarias such as Plasmodium inui shortii and P. fragile in Sri Lanka and P. cynomolgi and P. inui in the foothills of southern India. Anopheles mirans is found in south western India and Sri Lanka.
Coetzee 1984. Systematic Entomology 9: 1–8. Ward (1992), page 179.
Name Although not stated it is clear that this species was named after the country Namibia and then Latinized.
Namibia became a German protectorate in 1884 and a colony, known as German South-West Africa, in 1904. South Africa occupied the German colony during World War 1 (1914–1918), and after World War II (1939–1945) it annexed the territory. The guerrilla group of the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) in 1966 launched a war of independence for the area, which eventually became Namibia. However, it was only in 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration and a UN peace plan for the entire region was established. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990, but it was only on 21 March 1990 that the country officially became fully independent. Walvris Bay was ceded to Namibia in 1994 at the end of Apartheid in South Africa. The capital is Windhoek. Namibia borders the South Atlantic Ocean between Angola and South Africa and covers an area of 824,292 km2. Namibia is a very flat country and much of it is desert or semi-desert, such as the Namid desert along the coast with sand dunes created by the strong onshore winds and which are the highest in the world. The Namibian coastal deserts are the richest source of diamonds worldwide making the country the world's biggest producer of diamonds. The famous Kalahari Desert is in the East. In the Karoo area of the Kalahari there are over 5,000 species of plants, almost half are endemic, and there are over one third of the world's succulent plants. The highest point in Namibia is in the Central Plateau, which rises to 2,600 m, and stretches from the north to south and is bordered by the Skeleton Coast. Much of the population depends on subsistence farming but less than 1% of the land is arable. Natural resources are minerals such as diamonds, copper, gold, silver, uranium, zinc and salt. Namibia is the first country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip. Namibia has 26 wildlife parks, the most famous being the Etosha National Park which has 114 mammal species. Large mammals include elephant, black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceros, giraffe, buffalo as well as lion, leopard and cheetah. Endangered species include the wild dog (Lycaon pictus), the Oribi antelope (Ourebia ourebi) and Puku antelope (Kobus vardonii). The Puku is limited to about 100 individuals along the Chobe River in Botswana and the Linyati marshes in Namibia. The gemsbok (Oryx gazella), an antelope with long symmetrical horns and black and white markings, is part of the country's coat of arms. There are also about 700 bird species, of which 11 are endemic including the Damara tern (Sterna balaenarum), African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), the rockrunner (Chaetops pycnopygius) and the sociable weaver (Philetairus socius) bird which builds communal nests in which several hundreds of birds may live together. There are over 120 species of trees and about 200 endemic plant species that include the lithops also known as flowering stones (Lithops species), the curious elephant foot (Adenia pechuelii) and the halfmens (Pachypodium namaquanum) found near the Orange River.
Anopheles namibiensis is morphologically very close to An. ziemanni. Adults of both species were collected and offered blood-meals to obtain progeny of all life-forms for taxonomic study. Adults of An. namibiensis are mainly identified by the wings having a much reduced apical white fringe spot extending from vein R1 to just before vein R3, while An. ziemanni this fringe spot extends to well beyond veins R4 and R5. These characters were found to identify 98.2% of An. namibiensis. The genitalia of adult males are similar to that of An. ziemanni. It appears that the pupae may be identified by seta 5–VI having 23 or more branches, with An. ziemanni having 22 or fewer branches. Fourth instar larvae of An. nambiensis can be identified by having about 50 spicules on the ventral surface of abdominal segment I, whereas An. ziemanni has many fewer spicules or none. Eggs of the two species are inseparable. The polytene chromosomes of fourth instar larvae show that An. namibiensis has floating inversions in chromosomes 2L and 3R, but apart from this the two species are homosequential, however, the quality of the chromosomes was “so poor that this [separation] is by no means certain”. However, Coetzee concluded that chromosomal together with biological characters indicate that An. namibiensis merits species status. All adults were collected from a cattle enclosure and were blood-fed to obtain samples of all life stages. In nature no females were found biting humans or collected resting indoors. There was no other information on the ecology of An. namibiensis. It is known only from only the Kavango district of Nambia.
Peyton and Ramalingam 1988. Mosquito Systematics 20: 272–299. Ward (1992), page 182.
Name“The name used for this species is an English word of Greek origin, indicative of the obvious preference of a species for wooded-forested areas. It is defined in Webster's Twentieth Century Dictionary, Unabridged as: “a. [Gr. nemos, a wooded pasture and philos, loving] having a love for or living in the woods.” The selection of an English word conforms to article 11(b), (ii) of the ICZN and in this form it is indeclinable and the original spelling is to be retained, with termination unchanged, article 31(b) ICZN.” Note that the ICZN quoted is the 1985 3rd edition. Formerly An. dirus of Baimai et al. (1988). (cytogenetics, species F).
Most members of the An. dirus species complex were first recognized as distinct species by crossing experiments, cytogenetics (chromosome banding patterns), alloenzyme data and later by DNA probes and DNA hybridization. In the 1980s to 2002, PCR has further helped to identify species in the An. dirus species complex. Only after these studies were the new species formerly named as shown in this document. Although Peyton and Ramalingam (1988) formally described and named An. nemophilous, as they point out it is not a recent newly discovered member of the Leucospyrus Group, as Colless (1956) briefly described what he considered to be a distinct geographical variant of An. leucosphyrus Doenitz from a small series of females, larvae and pupal skins from central Malaysia. He assigned it to the vernacular name “Fraser's Hill form.” He also described the “Kepong form” from the same general area believing it was different from the “Fraser's Hill form”, although the larvae were similar. Colless (1956) presumed they were hybrids, possibly resulting from hybridization between An. leucosphyrus and An. leucosphyrus balabacensis Baisas. Colless (1957) then suggested that the “Fraser's Hill form” might be a high altitude subspecies, species or a phenotypic variant caused by growth at high altitude, but realized that further specimens were needed. Some years later Reid (1968) also recognized the “Fraser's Hill form” and thought it might be a mountain variant of the then taxonomic entity An. balabacensis introlatus but noted significant morphological differences and considered that further specimens were needed. Finally Peyton and Ramalingam (1988) received cytotype voucher specimens of Baimai's species F (= Fraser Hill form) collected from southern Thailand, and these were recognized as a distinct species which they named Anopheles nemophilous. Adult female An. nemophilous are often not difficult to distinguish from those of An. introlatus which has a pale accessory sector (ASP) spot extending to the costa on at least one wing and lacks a pale basal band on hindtarsomere 4, in contrast An. nemophilous lacks an ASP spot that extend to the costa and has a prominent basal pale band on hind tarsomere 4. However, these differences do not always distinguish the two species. Separation of adult An. nemophilous from An. dirus is more difficult, but usually An. dirus has several wing spots (HP, PSP and SP) that are dull or dingy white in contrast to the pure-white color of these spots in An. nemophilous. Pupae of An. nemophilous cannot be distinguished from those of An. dirus, whereas pupae of An. introlatus are easily are easily distinguished from those of An. nemophilous and An. dirus. Fourth instar larvae An. nemophilous can be distinguished from those of A. dirus and from An. introlatus by a combination of mainly setal characters. Anopheles nemophilous is a forest species occurring in mountains and their foothills at elevations of 100 to 1,500 m. Larval habitats are similar to those of other species in the An. dirus species complex, especially An. latens, that is ground pools, seepage pools, rock pools in or near streams and elephant footprints. Little is known about the behavior of adults, except that females have been caught in human bait collections about 10 m from a village house and also in bait collections on a platform in the forest canopy. Found in Malaysia and Thailand.
Nguyen, Tran and Harbach 2000. pp. 190–197. In Nguyen, Tran, Harbach, Elphick and Linton. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 16: 189–198.
Name“The species is named in recognition of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology (NIMPE-Hanoi) and its support of mosquito taxonomy in relation to malaria control. For purposes of nomenclature, the specific name nimpe is to be regarded as an arbitrary combination of letters without gender.”
On 1 July 1957 the Prime Minister of Vietnam issued a Decision on the establishment of the Malaria Institute directed by the former Professor Dang Van Ngu. Then on 5 September 1961 the Minister of Health, Professor Pham Ngoc Thach, signed a Decision to change the name of the Malaria Institute to the Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology. Finally, on 30 November 1998, the Prime Minister issued a Decision to authorize this change to the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and hence the acronym NIMPE was born. After a surge in malaria in the mid 1990s NIMPE managed to greatly reduce both transmission and deaths in the north and south of Vietnam. In addition to controlling malaria NIMPE is responsible for the control of many other diseases such as helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis and fluke infections. In addition to disease control NIMPE undertakes research on diseases such as malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and other parasitic infections. NIMPE also runs training programs for both technical staff as well as university graduates.
Larvae collected from southern Vietnam and progeny of wild-caught adults were reared to obtain, in addition to adults, larvae and pupae of An. nimpe. This species belongs to the An. hyrcanus species group and can be distinguished from other species in the group found in Southeast Asia by a number of characters. Such as adult females having narrow apical tarsal bands, apex of the wing with a long pale fringe spot and having a preapical pale (PP) spot on the costa and vein R1 that is either absent or weakly developed. Adult males have 3 pairs of leaflets on the aedeagus lacking serrations or teeth and the dorsal lobe of the claspette has the club comprising at least 3 setae on the inner-sternal side and 2 flat appressed scales on the outer-tergal side. Pupae can be identified by the shape of the trumpet rim and branching of various setae. Fourth instar larvae, however, are not so easily identified from other species but usually the antennal seta 1–A (shaft hair) has fewer than 6 branches and seta 8–C (sutural hair) fewer than 12 branches. Anopheles nimpe appears to show closer affinities with An. crawfordi, An. lesteri, An. paraliae and An. sinensis than with other species in the An. hyrcanus species group, however, An. nimpe can be morphologically distinguished from these species. Larval habitats are shaded brackish waters amongst emergent grasses and other plants. Adults have been recorded biting humans both indoor and outdoors, but they appear not to rest indoors. The species is a secondary malaria vector, and sporozoites of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax have been found in female adults. Anopheles nimbe is known only from coastal areas of southern Vietnam.
Rattanarithikul and Green 1986. Mosquito Systematics 18: 246–278. Ward (1992), page 182.
Name“This species is named in honor of Dr. Vimol Notananda who devoted much of his life to the study of malaria and other tropical diseases in Thailand. He served as the Director of the Malaria Division and the Director General of the Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, before he retired in 1980. The conventional English pronunciation of the Latinized name is notanoni.” Formerly known as species G of Green and Baimai (1984).
Vimol Notananda was born on 21 July 1920 in the northern city of Lampoon, famous for its silk and for having the most beautiful women in Thailand. He obtained his medical degree on 30 March 1945 from the University of Medical Sciences, Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, which is the oldest university in Thailand. Then on 20 September 1954 he went to the U.S.A. and enrolled at the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine and was awarded his Masters of Public Health and Tropical Medicine on 31 May 1955. From 1971–1973 he was the Divisional Director of the Malaria Division in Thailand, from 1973–1974 Deputy Director General of the Department of Medical Services and Health, from 1974–1975 Deputy Director General of the Department of Medical Sciences, from 1975–1979 Director General of the Department of Medical Sciences, and finally in 1979–1980 he was Director General of the Department of Public Health. His work and research was mainly on malaria and he became Thailand's leading malariologist, but he also investigated other diseases including filariasis. In 1953 he undertook surveys in different areas of Thailand on the incidence of malaria and filariasis. In 1953 he helped write a report of the Thai Government for WHO and UNICEF on a malaria control demonstration project. In 1969 wrote a paper for WHO on modified spraying apparatus that enabled the spraying of high walls and ceilings that are encountered in some homes in rural areas of Thailand. During malaria surveys he often collected mosquitoes, culicines as well as anophelines, and this often added new mosquito species to the known list of mosquitoes in Thailand. He retired in 1980 and I believe that in 2010 Dr. Vimol Notananda celebrated his 90th birthday.
The following morphological differences and descriptions of An. notanandai were based on an extensive examination of chromosomal rearrangements of ovarian polytene chromosomes in progeny of An. notanandai obtained from wild-caught females. Anopheles notanandai is in the An. maculates species group of eight species, six of which occur in Thailand. Adult females differ from other species in the group, but not always from An. sawadwongporni, by having a shorter median pale spot on vein M3 +4 (vein 5.1) and usually a long median dark spot on vein 1A (vein 6). However, adult females of An. notanandai can usually be distinguished from those of An. sawadwongporni by a combination of characters such as the length of the palps, wing venation and banding patterns of the fore- and hindtarsi. Nevertheless sometimes it is not possible to distinguish adults of An. notanandai and An. sawadwongporni. Adult males of An. notanandai and An. sawadwongporni are also difficult to distinguish. In contrast, eggs of An. notanandai are distinctly different. No information is given on the biology of this species. Only known from Thailand.
Brunhes, le Goff and Geoffroy, 1997. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 33: 173–183.
Name“Nous avons donnéà ce moustique le nom d'okuensis car il semble localisé, actuellement au moins, à la partie méridionale de la chaîne de l'Adamaoua (Région du Mont Oku).”
Oku is a rural area of about 35 villages in northwest Cameroon having Bamenda as the nearest large town, although Kumbo a good sized town is only about 18 km away. Oku is relatively near to Nigeria and travel across the border is common as many people have relatives on either side of the border. The term Oku refers to both the local people and the language they speak, in addition to English. Oku is a very mountainous region about 1200 m above sea level and becomes cold at night. Mount Oku, a stratovolcano, rises to a height of 3,011 m. Two nearby crater lakes are Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun. The region is important for its biodiversity, especially the Kilum-Ijim Forest. Mount Oku and the Ijim Ridge comprise the largest montane forest remaining in West Africa and has exceptional levels of endemism amongst the flora, such as Kniphofia reflexa which has the inflorescence on a tall stout spike growing up to 1.6 m tall and to 2 m when bearing fruit. This plant was first collected in 1931 but was not recollected until 1996. Kniphofia reflexa is in the family Asphodaceae which has about 800 species in more than 12 genera of which about 70 species occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Many species have been cultivated and some are known as Red Hot Pokers. In 1997 a small Sphagnum community and associated wetland plant species were discovered at an elevation of 2,900 m near the summit of Mount Oku. This is the highest Sphagnum bog and the source of the highest stream in West Africa. During their evolution African clawed frogs, of which there are 17 species, have undergone drastic changes in their chromosome numbers. They exhibit polyploidy, that is they have more than the two sets of chromosomes as found in most other organisms (diploid). Lake Oku's clawed frog (Xenopus longipes) has 12 sets of chromosomes, so is dodecaploid. Their only known habitat is the Lake. Luckily no invasive predators have been introduced which could be catastrophic for the clawed frog population. There is a shortage of good agricultural land, but there is subsistent farming with farms extending up steep hillsides. Main crops are beans, sweat corn, potatoes and “Oku honey.”
Anopheles okuensis is morphologically similar in many respects to An. implexus but adult males and females differ in the pattern of pale scaling at the extremities of wing veins Cup (vein 5.2), R2+3 (veins 2.1 and 2.2), M1+2 (vein 4.1), by the meskatepisternum having mainly white scales and the femora and tibiae black but with numerous pale rings. The male genitalia appear to be indistinguishable from that of An. implexus. Fourth instar larvae are very similar to those of An. implexus but can be distinguished by having spicules at the base of the pectin teeth, and by other differences such as seta 4–C, (posterior clypeal hair) being short but reaching just to the base of seta 2–C (inner clypeal hair) and having seta 1–X long and thin. Little is known about the biology of this species, but both larvae and adults are found in forests at high altitudes such as 1,300–1,650 m. Larvae are found in small streams especially in forested areas. Only known from forests in Oku, Cameroon.
Wilkerson and Motoki, 2009 pp. 841–846. In Motoki, Wilkerson and Sallum. Memóris Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 104: 823–850.
Name“The name oryzalimnetes is a combination of oryza, Greek for rice and limnetes, Greek for inhabiting or born in a lake or marsh. This mosquito species was first found in a rice plantation.” Formerly An. albitarsis species A of various authors such as Forattini et al. (1996) and as An. albitarsis species B of various authors including Wilkerson et al. (1995).
Anopheles oryzalimnetes is a species in the An. albitarsus species complex. All five species in the complex are difficult to identify because of their similarities. Consequently principal component analysis, discriminate function analyses and cluster analyses were used to assess the value of morphological characters of the adult females. Molecular identification techniques such as random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR.) were used to aid identification. Several characters such as wing length, length of vein R4+5 (vein 3), length of several wing spots and the length of hindtarsomere 2 were measured for the five species in the An. albitarsis species complex, that is An. albitarsis, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. janconnae and An. oryzalimnetes (see entries deanorum and janconnae). There was considerable overlap in the morphometric data of these five species. However, the ratio of the length of the basal dark area of hindtarsomere 2 and the length of this tarsomere identified two major groups. One group consists of An. albitarsis (mean = 0.62) and An. deaneorum (0.67). The other group comprising An. marajoara (mean = 0.48), An. oryzalimnetes (mean = 0.42) and An. janconnae (mean = 0.39), and as shown these species differ in their hind tarsomere 2 ratios. Additionally some wing spots can also differ in size, for example An. oryzalimnetes has a lower mean value of the length of the sector pale (SP) spot than does An. albitarsis. Adult males are similar to the females of An. oryzalimnetes but the genitalia show differences. Pupae and fourth instar larvae are very similar to those of An. albitarsis but can often be separated by a combination of morphological characters, mainly setal ones. Anopheles oryzalimnetes can be identified by molecular characterization. Larvae are common in ricefields and adult females are anthropophagic, biting both indoors and out of doors. Apart from this little is known about the ecology or medical importance of this species because An. oryzalimnetes has in the past not be identified as being a separate species. This species is considered to be widely distributed in Brazil and Paraguay.
Awono-Ambene, Kengne, Simard, Antonio-Nkondjio and Fontenille 2004. Journal of Medical Entomology 41: 561–568.
Name“We propose calling this new species Anopheles ovengensis, after its geographical origin.”
Oveng is a small town (2° 20’ N, 11° 08’ E) in the South Province of Cameroon having a population of about 1,000 people. It is located on the Kam River near the northern border of Equatorial Guinea and near the Ntem River and has the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Youandé, the capital of Cameroon, is about 250 km northwest of Oveng. A short distance to the west of Oveng is Campo-Ma'an National Park covering about 769,445 ha. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) it is an important conservation area because of its biologically diverse coastal forest. More recently the park has been renamed WWF Kudu-Zombo, with Kudu in many local languages meaning turtle, while Zombo refers to the mandrill, a large forest primate with blue markings on its face. All four marine turtles in Cameroon and mandrills are endangered species. The forest park is home to about 80 large and medium sized mammals including a significant population of forests elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) as well as lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and 28 other primates species including chimpanzees, black colobus monkeys (Colobus satanus) and mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) as well as hippopotamuses, giant pangolins (Smutsia gigantea) and leopards. There are also 302 recorded bird species, 122 reptile species and more than 400 marine fish, many of which are endangered because of overfishing.
During collections of larvae and adult mosquitoes in the forest region of Campo, in southern Cameroon, a new morphological variant close to An. nili was found and was provisionally called the “Oveng form,” later named An. ovengensis. It belongs to the An. nili species group which comprises An. carnevalei, An. somalicus, An. nili and the “Congo form” of Gillies and De Meillon (1968). Female adults and fourth instar larvae of An. ovengensis can be separated from the others in the An. nili species group by a combination of characters such as adults having 4 pale spots on the costa and radius vein (vein 1), a large presector pale spot on the radius and 4 pale spots on the alar fringe. Adult males were neither collected nor reared. Pupae were not described. Fourth instar larvae are identified by having a long seta 3–C (outer clypeal hair) which is simple and not forked, prothoracic seta 1–P (inner shoulder hair) is dendritic and there is just 1 accessory tergal plate on segments 3–6. DNA was extracted from individual adults and larvae and the ITS2 region amplified using PCR. A diagnostic PCR assay showed that the pattern of sequences differences in the ITS2 region could identify An. ovengensis. The biology of An. ovengensis is poorly known but larvae have been collected from the edges of streams and rivers. It appears that adults are anthropophagic and exophilic. Plasmodium sporozoites have been detected in the salivary glands by dissection while circumsporozoite protein enzyme linked immunosorbent assay has detected P. falciparum in other specimens. In addition to Campo in Cameroon it seems likely that this species occurs in neighboring Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
Shidrawi and Gillies 1988. Mosquito Systematics 19: 201–211. Ward (1992), page 182.
Name“The species is named for Dr. A.B. Paltrinieri, former WHO Representative in Oman, in recognition of his active assistance in the initial survey of 1975.”
I have found relatively little information on the life of Dr. Adriano B. Paltrinieri, except that he was an Italian medical doctor who was in born on 3 March 1922 and obtained his M.D. degree from the University of Turin. Then on 26 February 1951 he went to the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine where he studied for the Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (DTM&H), which he eventually obtained in November 1951 and returned to Italy. At some time during the late 1950s he was in Libya during a malaria pre-eradication survey because an unpublished WHO report in 1959 showed that W.J. Goodwin and Paltinieri recorded the presence of the malaria vector An. multicolor in Libya. Sometime later Paltrinieri became a World Health Organization Representative in Oman and was especially interested in schistosomiasis transmission. In 1980 he carried out surveys on snail habitats and found Biomphalaria arabica in several new localities in Oman. In 1984, Paltrinieri found B. arabica in two unusual habitats, an artificial cement pool connected to a natural water system in Wadi Gul at Rabbah, Jabal Akhdar and also from a muddy substratum in Wadi Kora and Jabal Akhdar. He and others published a short paper in 1985 on the snail Bulinus wrighti, the only species of the genus known in Oman, but nevertheless common in the north-eastern region of the country. Live snails were sent to The British Museum of Natural History, London, where experiments showed that snails of this species collected in Oman could be an experimental host of Schistosoma intercalatum. However, there was no evidence of human cases of S. haematobium infection being acquired in Oman. Paltrinieri organized and coordinated a visit by Abdul R. Zahar and two colleagues who were assessing the Malaria Programme in Oman, and he spent much time in the field with them. When Paltrinieri was in Oman, George R. Shidrawi, who at the time was working for WHO, visited Oman on at least three occasions, probably to assess the government's malaria program. I believe that Dr. Paltrinieri accompanied Shidrawi to the field during his first visit in 1975 when a new anopheline species, An. paltrinierii, was found and later named in honor of Dr. Paltrinieri. I would like to thank Mr. Richard Meunier of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine for searching the archival records pertaining to the time that Dr. Paltrinieri was at the London School.
In the late 1960s to early 1970s, larvae of Anopheles were found in numerous localities in south-eastern Arabia, firstly by Abdul Zahar who collected larvae close to the boarder with Oman (Zahar, 1969). M.T. Gillies examined the adults and noted their resemblance to An. apoci Marsh and An. azaniae Bailly-Choumara. [I make no apologies for digressing to explain that Marsh, while surveying oil fields in Persia in 1933, named the new species he found An. apoci, an acronym of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company! I was fortunate in being shown the original larval habitat in 1992]. In 1975, Shidrawi collected larvae from five localities in Oman and reared out a few adults, although none could be identified they were close to An. apoci, then further larvae were collected between 1976 and 1979 and reared to adults by A. A. Mamser, a WHO Technical Officer. Finally in 1983, M.F. Beidas reared adults from Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Examination of all the above material finally showed they represented a new species which in 1987 was named An. paltrinierii. Adults of this new species cannot be distinguished from those of An. apoci without dissecting them. Adult females can be identified as An. paltrinierii by their well-developed roots of the cones in the pharyngeal armature while adult males can be identified by the absence of leaflets on the aedeagus of the genitalia. Pupae can be identified by seta 5 being long and simple on all segments and by seta 6 being much shorter than in An. apoci. Fourth instar larvae are easily identified by the metathoracic seta 9–T being simple and seta 10–T being feathered. Eggs are reported as not known. Larval habitats are exposed waters such as irrigation pools, reservoirs, along the edges of streams, amongst floating leaves and or algae. Most aquatic habitats are derived from underground waters emerging at the bases of mountains. Nothing is known about the ecology of the adults. Known from the Interior Region of Oman, and its northern tip and also from the United Arab Emirates.
De Rook, H. 1935. Health of the Netherlands New Guinea, pp. 23–27. In Report of the 2nd International Pacific Health Conference, Sydney. Ward (1992), page 210.
Name Derivation not given but clearly refers to the Province of Papua of Papua New Guinea.
Papua is the largest province of Indonesia and comprises the western half of New Guinea and nearby islands. During the Dutch colonial era the region was called Dutch, or Netherlands, New Guinea. In 1969 during its annexation it was known as West Iran or Iran Barat, but in 1973 it was renamed Iran Jaya by the Suharto regime, then in 2002 it became known as Papua. The capital is Jayapura which was founded on 7 March 1910 as Hollandia. Papua covers an area of 421,981 km2 and has a population of around 2,100,000 people. The country is mountainous with a central east-west mountain range stretching over 1,600 km in length. The western section is about 600 km long and 100 km across. The province has the highest mountains outside the Himalayas and the Andes, rising to 4,884 m. Vast lowland areas in the south and north include humid lowland rainforests, wetlands and savanna grasslands, and some of the largest mangrove forests in the world. The southern lowlands contain the Lorentz National Park which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Park covers 2.5 million ha and is the largest protected area in Southeast Asia and also the only protected wildlife area in the world that incorporates snowcapped mountains, tropical marine environments as well as extensive lowland wetlands. In Papua there are an estimated 16,000 plant species of which 124 are endemic, some of the trees are the tallest in the tropics. There are about 2,700 orchid species. The forests include a rich fauna of marsupials including possums such as the long-tailed pigmy possum (Cercartetus caudatus), tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus species), wallabies and cuscuses such as the common spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus). There is also the rare and endangered long beaked echinid (Zaglossus bruijni). There are about 680 species of birds including the fabulous birds of paradise, cassowaries, parrots and cockatoos. Forty-two species of birds are endemic. There are over 500 species of reptiles including the giant monitor lizard (Varanus salvadorrii) which is the longest in the world, some 75 species of snakes, and 330 amphibian species. There is a vast number of insects with some of the world's most beautiful butterflies including the world's largest, namely Queen Alexandra's birdwing (Troides alexandrae) which has a wingspan of about 30 cm. In 2005 and 2007, scientific expeditions were made to collect and document the fauna and flora of the Foja Mountains, which rise to 2,193 m above sea level, and are located north of the Mamberamo river basin. The Foja forest covers 9,712 km2 and is the largest tropical forest in the Asia-Pacific region lacking roads. Although the expeditions in 2005 and 2007 found new species of plants and animals the most productive and publicized expedition was in November 2008, backed by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, National Geographic Society (see June 2010 issue of the National Geographic magazine) and the Smithsonian Institution. Among the new species discovered were plants, including a new species of flowering shrub (Ardisia hymenandroides), a new species of Rhododendron which is epiphytic on trees and has the largest flowers of any species, measuring about 15 cm in diameter, and five new species of palms and a new tree species. A new species of a black and white butterfly was named Ideopsis fojana, but many new species have as yet only been identified to genus, such as the new species of Imperial pigeon (Ducula sp. nov.). Of the many new species of mammals are the world's smallest member of the kangaroo family, a wallaby (Dorcopsulus sp. nov.), a wooly giant rat (Mallomys sp. nov.), a tree mouse (Pogonomys sp. nov.) and the blossom bat (Syconycteris sp. nov.). More than 20 new species of tree frogs were discovered, including the spike-nosed or Pinocchio frog (Litoria sp. nov.) and a new species of gecko, the gargoyle-faced gecko (Crytodactylus sp. nov.). Not having previously encountered humans, many of the animals are very tame. With such a surfeit of new plant and animal species, it is not surprising that the media named the area “The Lost Planet.”
Anopheles papuensis was recorded as a new species from the Upper Digoel River and Geelvinck Bay, Irian Jaya, but it was not apparently described so it becomes a nomen nudum. As it was listed by de Rook below the names Bironell racilis and Bi. travestitusLee et al. (1988) on page 67 considered this species was almost certainly in the genus Bironella and not an Anopheles as given by the author. Furthermore it seems that the specimens listed as Anopheles papuensis nov. sp. by de Rook (1929) were later reidentified by de Rook and Soesila (1930a) as Bi. papuae.
Linton, Sedaghat and Harbach, 2003 p. 533. In Sedaghat, Linton, Oshaghi, Vatandoost and Harbach. Bulletin of Entomological Research 93: 527–535.
Name. “The specific name, persiensis, is a Latinized geographical name meaning ‘from Persia’. The final vowel of Persia is omitted for euphony and smoothness of pronunciation.”
Known as Persia until 1935 when it was commonly known as Iran with the ancient town of Tehran as its capital. In 1979 Iran became an Islamic republic after the overthrow of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi who was forced into exile. The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan and means Land of the Aryans. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 7,000 BC. Iran covers about 1,648,000 km2 and borders the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south, the Caspian Sea to the north, Iraq in the West and Afghanistan to the East. It has a population of about 68 million. There is a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar, referred to as the Supreme Leader who is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts. From 1980–1988 Iran waged an indecisive war against neighboring Iraq which eventually extended into the Persian Gulf and in 1987–1988 led to clashes with the U.S. Navy. About 35% of Iran is covered by deserts, salt flats and inhospitable rocky terrain and mountains that enclose broad tracts of land on which urban settlements and agricultural lands are located. The main mountain chain is the Zagros Mountains that divide the country from northwest to southeast and many of the peaks are higher than 3,000 m. The highest point in Iran is Mount Damavand, which rises to 5,610 m. Only about 12% of the land is under cultivation, and irrigation is usually essential for crops such as wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, fruit orchards and dates, as well as for livestock such as sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo. Natural resources include coal, copper, chromium, iron ore, zinc, sulphur, natural gas and petroleum. Persian, or Iranian, rugs and carpets are an essential part of Persian art and culture that dates back to ancient Persia. The carpets are world famous and remain in demand despite being expensive, but they are the finest in the world and their designs are copied by weavers in other countries. There are an estimated 1.2 million weavers in Iran producing carpets for domestic markets and international export; in 2008, Iran's exports of hand-woven carpets was valued at $420 million which is about 30% of the world's market. Iranian weavers have made the world's largest handmade carpet which measures 5,624 m2. The mountains have a rich diversity of trees and other plants, there being more than 2,000 plant species in Iran. At least 20 mammalian species are endangered among them are the Baluchistan or Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) which is probably the largest of all subspecies in the world, lions are no longer present in Iran. About 14 bird species are endangered including the Siberian crane (Grus leucogenranus).
Anopheles persiensis is a member of the An. maculipennis species complex and is closest to An. martinius and An. sacharovi. Adults of An. persiensis resemble other species of the Palaearctic An. maculipennis species complex by having distinct clusters of dark scales on the wing veins and by larvae having the seta 3–C (outer clypeal hair) being conspicuously dendritic. But identification of this species is dependent on molecular methods. In fact An. persiensis is the first mosquito species to be characterised and named as a new species principally on the bases of DNA evidence. Diagnostic sequences for the nuclear ITS2 region distinguish An. persiensis from all other members of the An. maculipennis species complex. Nothing is known about the ecology of An. persiniensis. The authors believe that An. persiensis could be a malaria vector in some regions where transmission was previously attributed to An. maculipennis. Only known from the northern Caspian Sea littoral provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran of Iran (formerly Persia).
Kulasekera, Harrison and Amerasinghe 1988. Mosquito Systematics 20: 302–316. Ward (1992), page 179. It appears that this new species was formerly known as “An. insulaeflorum” by various authors studying Anopheles from Sri Lanka.
Name“We take great pleasure in naming this species in honor of our friend, E.L. Peyton, for making the excellent collections of this species in 1975, and for his many superb contributions to our knowledge of the Anopheles of Asia, particularly the Dirus Complex.”
EL Peyton (1929–1999) was one of the most famous mosquito taxonomist in the U.S.A. (He insisted that there should be no periods between the two initials EL and so was always known as EL). He was born in Pine Bluff, Arizona on 1 May 1929. After completing high school he enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1948 and went to the Panama Canal Zone where within three years he was promoted from Private to Sergeant. He was indoctrinated in the skills of mosquito taxonomy by Colonel Stanley J. Carpenter and Colonel Frank S. Blanton. On returning to the U.S.A. in 1953 Peyton worked at various military installations until these duties were interrupted by a three-year (1958–1961) tour in Germany at a U.S. Army Hospital, after which he then returned to the U.S.A. Back home he was assigned to the U.S. Army Medical Component, SEATO (Southeast Asian Treaty Organization) Medical Research Laboratory, Bangkok, Thailand. From 1964–1967 he was in charge of mosquito biology and taxonomy. His studies on Thai mosquitoes followed from those initiated by John E. Scanlon. EL returned to the U.S. in 1968 and served in various institutes, working on mosquito taxonomy, zoogeography and biology, such as on Anopheles and Uranotaenia species. He worked at the Smithsonian Institution (South-East Asian Mosquito Project (SEAMP) from 1969–1974 and then at the Medical Entomology Project from 1974–1984. At the conclusions of these contracts he was awarded a civil service appointment at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) and was associated with the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit of the Smithsonian until his death. In addition to his scientific work he somehow had the time to become an expert on the 1st issue of stamps of the United Nations, and had planned in retirement to write a definitive monograph on this subject. Unfortunately this project was cut short by his death. EL died in 1999 and was survived by a son, Michael, a daughter, Patricia, his mother, Mrs. Hallie Peyton, two sisters, a brother and three grandchildren. I believe EL serves as an example how a gifted person with intelligence and great enthusiasm, but lack of a university education, can rise be become an eminent medical entomologist. However, it is doubtful whether this could happen today when paper qualifications are crucial for most professional situations. Based on an obituary by Ronald A. Ward and Ralph E. Harbach (2000). See also Gilbert, (2007).
Numerous specimens collected from several areas of Sri Lanka in 1975 were very similar to An. insulaeflorum and initially it was though that they were this species. However, closer examination of the larvae and other life stages showed that this was a new species which was named An. peytoni, which in the past has probably incorrectly been identified in Sri Lanka as An. insulaeflorum. Anopheles peytoni belongs to the An. aitkenii species group and shares many morphological characters with several species in the group. Adult females can usually be distinguished from those of An. insulaeflorum by having the prescuella area bare and a unicolorus abdomen, but not from other species in the An. aitkenii species group. Adult males can be distinguished from many members of the group by the shape of the genital aedeagus and by it having small spines. Pupae resemble those of An. insulaeflorum but differs in seta-II having 3–6 branches and the fringe is 0.68–0.95 as long as seta 1–P. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of characters, mainly setal ones such as having both setae 2–C (inner clypeal hair) very close together and simple, seta 11–III has 2–4 branches and seta 1–X (saddle hair) has 2–4 branches. However, identification should not be too difficult because An. aitkenii is the only other species in the An. aitkenii species group occurring in Sri Lanka and small taxonomic differences in adult females, male genitalia, pupae and larvae can identify specimens as An. peytoni not An aitkenii. Eggs are unknown. Anopheles peytoni is a lowland forest species with larvae occurring in many types of ground waters including small pools adjacent to streams, roadside ditches, rock pools, elephant footprints in a swamp and a gem pit. Adults apparently bite humans. Only known from Sri Lanka.
Tyagi, Hiriyan, Tewari, Ayanar, Samuel, Arunachalam, Paramasivan, Krishnamoorthy, Dhananjeyan, Leo and Rajendran. 2009. Zootaxa 2219: 49–60.
Name“This species is named based (sic) on similarities to An. sundaicus particularly its morphological characteristics and breeding habitat in brackish waters.”
The species An. sundaicus was named after the Sunda islands in the Malay Archipelago; the prefix pseudo comes from the Greek pseudes meaning false. Hence, the derivation of pseudosundaicus. At least 43 species, in several mosquito genera, have pseudo as the first part of their names.
Anopheles pseudosundaicus is similar to An. sundaicus and An. subpictus, but adults and immature stages can be distinguished morphologically, and also it appears by their molecular characteristics. For example a combination of morphological characters can identify An. pseudosundaicus adult females, such as having the apical pale band on the palps shorter than the subapical dark band, absence of a pale fringe spot between wing veins CuA (vein 5.2) and 1A (vein 6), absence of pale speckling on the legs and mid-tarsi with narrow apical basal bands. Male genitalia have two small spines arising between the apical spine and the club, and the apical spine on the claspette is about twice as long as the length of the club. Pupal seta 7–1 has 2–5 but usually 3, branches and these are shorter than setae 6, 9–1. Fourth instar larvae have seta 1–M with 25–30 branches and seta 4–M is usually single, although it can rarely be bifid. A partial sequence of Cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (CO1) of mt DNA places An. pseudosundaicus phylogenetically distant from An. sundaicus and closer to An. subpictus. Larvae were collected from brackish pools with floating algae in several coastal localities in Kerala State in southwest India. Adults were reared from collected larvae, nothing is known about their biology. Only known from Kerala southern India.
Sallum and Peyton. 2005 pp. 185–189. In Sallum Peyton and Wilkerson. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19: 158–199.
Name“The name recens is Latin for fresh, young, recent.” Formerly recognized as a new species in the An. elegans species subgroup and referred to as the Sumatra species of Peyton (1990) but not formerly named.
Adult females can be distinguished by a combination of characters, such as the proboscis being longer than the forfemur, proboscis entirely dark-scaled or with a ventral patch of pale scales at the tip, apical pale band on hindtibiae either all white or with a patch of dark scales on anterior surface, and by the arrangement of dark scales on the wings veins. Adult males are essentially the same as females except for sexual characters. Pupae are similar to those of An. latens and require many setae to be examined to separate An. recens from An. latens. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of characters, such as seta 5–C (inner frontal hair) being considerably longer than the antenna, seta 3–C (outer clypeal hair) extending beyond the anterior margin of the head, and setae I-III (palmate hairs) have 5–8 very narrow leaflets which are translucent or very lightly pigmented. Larvae were collected from temporary ground pools in cloud forests, sometimes having emergent vegetation, in either partial shade or full sunlight. Larval habitats were found at 1,550 m above sea level. Nothing is known about the habits or medical importance of adult An. recens. Known only from Sumatra Island, Indonesia.
Taylor and Maffi, 1991. The Natural History of Rennell Island, British Solomon Islands, Copenhagen 8: 195–197.
Name Explanation for the name rennellensis is not given but it is clearly a Latinization of Rennell island where the species was found.
Rennell Island (Mungava) is the main island of two inhabited islands that comprise the Rennell and Bellona Province of the Solomon Islands. Rennell is some 236 km south of Honiara and 1,900 km north east of Brisbane measuring about 80 km in length and about 14 km in width. Much of the island is surrounded by high cliffs. It is the second largest upraised coral island in the world, and has the largest lake, Lake Tegano (Lake Te Nggano), in the south Pacific. Sometime before 1400 the people from Wallis Island (Uvea) sailed across the Pacific to settle on the islands. In 1801 Captain Butler of H.M.S. Walpole was the first European to discover the islands. During the Pacific campaign of World War II the Battle of Rennell Island in January 1943 between the Japanese and American navies was the last major naval battle of the Guadacanal Campaign. Rennell has a population of about 3,000 of Polynesian descent. The capital is Tigoa which is at Rennell's airfield. Much of the island's agriculture consists of subsistence farming in cleared areas of forest, crops include sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and slippery cabbage (Abelmoschus manihot), and to a lesser extent Taro (Colocasia esculenta) and watercress (Rorippa nasturtium). Because of the poor soil, cattle and sheep do not thrive on the island. Fish in the coastal waters supply some food, but because of the poor nutrition of many islanders the Solomon island government seeded Lake Tegano with Oreochromis (=Tilapia) fish, which appear to thrive in the brackish waters. However, from the conservation point of view this introduction of a non-native voracious fish into the lake is unwelcomed. Lake Tegano, which was a base for flying boats of both the Japanese and American forces during the Pacific campaign, is the only known location of the endemic sea snake called krait (Laticauda crockeri). The other sea snake in the lake is L. colubrina. Reptiles include monitor lizards, geckos (Gekkonidae), skinks (Scincidae), snakes but none is poisonous. There are no amphibians on Rennell. There are 27 species of snails seven of which are endemic to the island. Of 37 species of land-birds and water-birds five are endemic species and nine endemic subspecies. Lake Tegano supports large numbers of water birds including several endemic subspecies such as the Australian little grebe (Tachybaptus novaehollandiae rennellianis) the little pied cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos brevicauda) and the black bitten (Dupetor flavicollis pallidior). Eleven species of bats are present on the Rennell islands including the Rennell flying-fox (Pteropus rennelli) which is endemic to the island and two subspecies of bats that are also endemic namely the diadem horseshoe-bat (Hipposideros diadema inornatus) and the large-eared sheathtail-bat (Emballonura dianae dianae). There is also a rare endemic orchid (Dendrobium rennellii) on the island. So far 731 species of insects have been recorded from Rennell and Bellona. This includes 246 moth species of which 35 species and 25 subspecies are found only on Rennell and or Bellona. East Rennell which includes Lake Tegano is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Originally the only anopheline reported from Rennell island was An. farauti a species of the An. punctulatus species complex but in January 1970 anophelines collected at Matangi in the forested center of the island although clearly of the An. punctulatus species complex could not be ascribed to any known species, although they were morphologically closest to An. koliensis and An. farauti (Maffi, 1973). Anopheles koliensis is markedly endophilic and its disappearance from the Solomons was probably due to indoor DDT spraying of houses. Although a new species was indicated there was insufficient material to justify naming it as a new species. Then in the 1980's An. koliensis-like mosquitoes were caught during surveys in Rennell which were eventually named as the new species, An. rennellensis. Anopheles rennellensis is not easy to identify. However, adults are distinguished from An. koliensis and An. farauti by a combination of characters such as the sub-apical ventral pale scaling on the labium although extensive does not extend to the dorsum, there is no sub-sectoral spot on the wings and the bucco-pharygeal armature has long apical serrations. Pupae can be identified by paddle seta 2P having 2 or 3 branches, a feature not otherwise seen in the An. punctulatus species complex. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of characters, mainly setal but also by the size of the tergal plates. Although many larval characters are also shared by An. koliensis and An. punctulatus a combination of characters can identify larvae as being those of An. rennellensis. All 66 slide-mounted larvae and 22 slide-mounted pupal exuviae were lost when posted from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu to Europe in mid 1987! (Harbach and Ward, 1994). Larval habitats unknown. Female adults are anthropophagic and exophilic. Anopheles rennellensis is not a malaria vector. This species is known only from Rennell island.
Rattanarithikul and Green 1987. Mosquito Systematics 18: 246–278. Ward (1992), page 182.
Name“Anopheles sawadwongporni is dedicated with deepest respect and admiration to Mr. Phorn Sawadwongporn, Chief, Entomology Section, Malaria Division, Northern Region, Ministry of Health, Thailand, whose dedicated efforts contributed significantly to the recognition of this species. Virtually all native speakers of English would give the correct Thai pronunciation of the specific name if it was spelled as “sawadwongpawni.” The name is Latinized by adding the letter i at the end of the name sawadwongporn. Formerly Anopheles (Celia) maculatus A of Green (1982).
I have been unable to find much information on Mr. Phorn Sawadwongporn but I know he was born on 6 October 1925 and from 1944–1946 attended the Military School of Medicine in Thailand. In 1965 he gained a certificate of health and hygiene from the Department of Health Government in the Philippines, supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the World Health Organization. Then in 1977 he obtained a certificate of Bio-environmental Methods in Malaria Control and in 1981 he participated in a workshop on Manpower Requirements in Entomological Aspects of the Malaria Control Programme, in Colombo, Sri Lanka. His main interests were mosquitoes and malaria and for 24 years (1955–1979) he was employed by the Communicable Disease Control Center at Chiang Mai, and then from 1980–1987 be was Chief of the Entomology Section of the Malaria Division, North Region, Ministry of Health Thailand. Finally, from 1988–1990 be became co-investigator of a study on Anopheles dirus and An. minimus, at Mahidol University.
Anopheles sawadwongporni is in the An. maculatus species group of eight species, six of which occur in Thailand. Morphological descriptions were based on an extensive examination of chromosomal rearrangements of the ovarian polytene chromosomes in progeny of An. sawadwongporni obtained from wild-caught females. Adult females of this new species can be identified by a combination of characters such as vein R2+3 (vein 2) having two dark spots, palpomere 3 usually without any dorsomesal pale scaling and the posterior third or more of terga II-VIII are covered with pale spatulate scales. It is difficult to distinguish adult males of An. sawadwongporni from those of An. notanandai, in contrast the eggs are easily identified by having a long and very narrow deck that is usually enclosed by a frill. Pupae and larvae were not described. No information is given on the ecology of this species. Found in Burma, China, Kampuchea, Vietnam and widely distributed and common in Thailand.
Sallum and Peyton, 2005 pp. 170–174. In Sallum, Peyton and Wilkerson. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19: 158–199.
Name“This species is named in honour of the late John E. Scanlon, whose studies on Anopheles represent an enormous contribution to knowledge of malaria epidemiology and vector species in Asia.” Formerly An. dirus species C of Baimai et al. (1984).
John F. Scanlon was known as Jack to his friends. He was born in New York City on 29 November 1925. In 1942, aged just I 7, he enlisted in the U.S. Army and spent about three years in the Infantry in Europe during World War II. On returning to the USA he gained a B.S. decree at Fordham University in 1950, and became 2nd Lieutenant in the Army Medical Service Corps. He received an M.S. degree in entomology from Cornell University in 1955 and a Ph.D. degree in entomology from the University of Maryland in 1960. He married Corsuelo Mladinich (Connie) in New York on 27 August 1947, with whom he had two sons, Brian F. and Russell J. Scanlon. He was soon assigned to the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in Washington, DC, and thereafter most of his army career was with the WRAIR, with tours of duty overseas, the first being to Japan in the early 1950s. In the ensuing years he spent much time in Southeast Asia, and was stationed in Bangkok, Thailand, in 1960, where for three years he headed the Department of Entomology SEATO Laboratory. He then returned to WRAIR as Chief of the Department of Entomology where he remained until his retirement from the army in 1969. His 27 years in the army made him a very patriotic American, and he often flew the Stars and Stripes on the flagpole in his garden. Jack published many scientific papers, mainly on mosquitoes, ranging from studies of their ecology, biology, and taxonomy, to studies on epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Japan, and on dengue outbreaks and control of Aedes aegypti, in Thailand. He also published on phlebotomine sand flies and on ectoparasites on mammals and birds in Japan. On retiring from the army, with the rank of Lt. Colonel, Jack joined the School of Public Health at the University of Texas, Houston, as a tenured professor, and from 1975 until his retirement in 1988 he was Associate Dean for Research. In 1979 he was sent to San Antonio to help establish the School of Public Health at the University of Texas Health Science Center. Jack served as a consultant to many organizations, including the World Health Organization, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and made many overseas trips including ones to Latin America and Southeast Asia. Despite a busy schedule Jack found time to become Secretary-Treasurer (1980–1987) of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. It was in 1978 that I first met Jack and Connie, when together with Lloyd and Mae Rozeboom, we served as WHO consultants to West and East Africa. I well recall our many adventures in Africa, including driving on rough roads with a leaky 44-gallon drum of gasoline sitting right behind us. We often arrived at destinations without accommodation, once sleeping fitfully above a noisy nightclub. At the end of his second career at the university, Jack and Connie moved to Boerne, where he devoted much of his time to gardening. Although in 1995 a stroke slowed him down, it failed to stop him from gardening and taking trips to bird watch and attend scientific meetings. He refused to let his physical hardships beat him, and with characteristic fortitude “soldiered on.” At home he worked daily on his computer and derived much pleasure from emailing his friends throughout the world. I was fortunate to renew our friendship on several occasions, the last time in 1997, when typically Jack insisted on welcoming my wife and me at San Antonio airport, despite being in a wheelchair. Jack died on 3 June 1999 aged 73. Partially based on Service (2000). See also Gilbert, (2007).
Most members of the An. dirus species complex were first recognized as distinct species by crossing experiments, cytogenetics (chromosome banding patterns), alloenzyme data and later by DNA probes and DNA hybridization. Then in the 1980s to 2002 PCR further helped to differentiate the An. dirus species complex. Only after these studies was the new species formerly named as shown in this document. Anopheles scanloni was originally identified as a new species by biochemical methods and differences in the polytene chromosomes of the larval salivary glands. Morphologically, adult females can be distinguished from related species by a combination of characters such as the proboscis being dark scaled and slightly longer than the forfemur, PSD (presector dark spot) on vein R (radial vein) normally with 1 or 2 pale interruptions and by the banding patterns on the hindtarsomere and hindtibia. Pupae can sometimes be correctly identified by the absence of a fringe of filamentous spicules on the inner margin of the paddle, but some individuals of An. elegans also exhibit this characteristic, however these two species are allopatric. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of mainly setal characters such as seta 3–C (outer clypeal hair) being single, seta 1–II (palmate hair) not fully developed and seta 2–C (inner clypeal hair) both single and simple. The distinctive H-banding pattern of the metaphase sex chromosomes distinguishes An. scanloni from many other species in the An. dirus species complex. The specific status of An. scanloni was also based on isozyme electrophoresis and a non radioactive DNA hybridization technique. Larval habitats include ground pools, rock pools and seepage waters mainly in bamboo groves, rain forests and scrub environments at elevations of 75–480 m above sea level. Adult females were caught biting in human bait collections in an evergreen forest, deciduous forest, secondary deciduous forest, in corn plantations surrounded by forest and also in villages. Anopheles scanloni may be an important malaria vector, but incrimination is hindered because it can be difficult to distinguish adults of this species from other species of the An. dirus species complex. Known only from Thailand.
Abdulla-Khan, Coetzee and Hunt. 1998. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 14: 248–252.
Name“The new species is named in honor of Sir Seretse Khama, the late president of Botswana, 1966–1980”.
Seretse Khama was born on 1 July 1921 at Serowe in the British protectorate of Bechuanaland. He was the son of Sekgoma Khama II, and the grandson of Kgosi (Cheif) Khama III (c.1835–1923), ruler of central Botswana. He was named Seretse, which means the clay that binds together, because of the recent reconciliation of his father and grandfather. When Sekgoma died in 1925, four-year old Seretse was proclaimed Kgosi. His uncle Tshekedi Khama became regent and later became his guardian. Seretse was a lonely child and was sent to boarding schools in South Africa, where he became keen on sport. He then attended Fort Hare University College, South Africa, and graduated in 1944 with a B.A. degree, in 1945 he went to England for a legal education. After a year at Balliol College, Oxford University, he enrolled for barrister studies at the Inner Temple, London. In 1947 he met an English woman, Ruth Williams, daughter of a retired army officer. They married in September 1948. His uncle Tshekedi ordered him home and demanded a divorce. However, after a series of public meetings in Serowe, Seretse got support from the people and was recognized as Kgosi together with his wife. However, a black chief with a white wife caused outcry among white settler politicians. South Africa had come under the control of white Afrikaner nationalists in 1948. The Labour government in Britain desperately needed South African gold and uranium so agreed to bar Seretse Khama from chieftainship. Seretse and his wife were exiled to England in 1951, and in 1952 the new Conservative government declared the exile permanent. Eventually, in 1956, a new Commonwealth relations minister realized that Britain must distance itself from institutionalized racism in South Africa, and decided to allow Seretse and Ruth home as commoners and private citizens. Back home, Seretse Khama was still respected as a man of principle and integrity, but was generally seen as being out-of-touch. His health declined until in 1960 he was diagnosed as having incipient diabetes. Then in 1961 he became a nationalist politician. The Bechuanaland Democratic Party (BDP), with Seretse as head, drew overwhelming support from both rural progressives and conservatives. The liberal-democratic BDP won the first universal franchise elections of 1965. Seretse Khama became prime minister and then, on 30 September 1966, president of the Republic of Botswana. He was knighted in 1966 by Queen Elizabeth II, and his wife became Lady Khama. Seretse Khama was known for his intelligence and integrity, and a wicked sense of humor, but had bouts of ill-health and depression, exacerbated by diabetes. He underwent intensive medical treatment in 1968–1969 and in 1976–1977 was fitted with a heart pacemaker and regained his impetus. His wife, Ruth, remained the guardian of his health and homelife, but had relatively little influence on his politics. In his last years Seretse Khama looked increasingly outwards and onwards. He was one of the “Front-Line Presidents” who negotiated the future of Zimbabwe and Namibia. He developed a vision for the future of Southern Africa after colonialism and apartheid, as a peaceful, democratic and prosperous region. He was thus the key founder of what has since become the Southern African Development Community. His continuous involvement with international negotiations, such as the independence of Zimbabwe, put strains on his health. But he had the satisfaction of witnessing both the independence of Zimbabwe in March 1980 and the launching of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference in April. Seretse died on 13 July 1980 from pancreatic cancer and was buried in the Khama family graveyard, on the hill at Serowe overlooking his birthplace. On 1 April 2008, Seretse Khama's son, Ian Khama, became the fourth President of Botswana.
During mosquito collections in 1995 in Kasane, Chobe District in northeastern Botswana mosquitoes were collected that belonged to a new undescribed species now known as An. seretsei. This species belongs to the An. listeri species group and shares most morphological features of the adults, pupae and larvae with those An. listeri and An. azevedoi. All type specimens of An. seretsei were reared from eggs from a single wild-caught female collected in a cattle enclosure. Adult females cannot be distinguished from those of An. listeri and An. azevedoi and male genitalia are as in An. listeri. However, certain setae on the pupae can identify An. seretsei but fourth instar larvae are indistinguishable from those of An. listeri but may sometimes differ from the larvae of An. azevedoi. Eggs differ from those of both An. listeri and An. azevedoi in having floats. There appear to no differences in the banding patterns of the polytene chromosomes of the ovarian nurse cells of An. seretsei and An. listeri, the polytene chromosomes of An. azevedoi are unknown (Abdulla et al. 1998). Very little is known about the ecology of An. seretsei except that larval habitats are probably hot saline springs and adults females bite humans and also cattle in enclosures. Only known from Botswana.
Reinert 1997. pp. 28–32. In Reinert, Kaiser and Seawright. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 13 (Supplement): 1–102.
Name“The species name smaragdinus is of Latin origin and refers to the emerald green color of the living 4th-instar larvae and early pupae.” Formerly Anopheles quadrimaculatus species B of Lanzaro (1987).
This species is in the An. quadrimaculatus species complex which comprises five species, namely An. quadrimaculatus s. str. and four new species An. diluvialis, An. inundatus, An. malverlius and An. smaragdinus. The type series of An. smaragdinus was reared from a single F1 progeny of a female. Adult females and males, pupae and fourth instar larvae of An. smaragdinus can usually be identified by a combination of morphological characters. For example adult females by having the sum of setae on both scutal fossal areas 17–40, dorsocental area with several golden or golden-white piliform scales on the anterior margin, femora I and II have pale scales apically and tibiae II (and nearly always I) have pale scales apically. Adult males can usually be identified by the palps being shorter than the proboscis and by the genital claspette having seta 4 often shorter than seta 5. Pupae can be identified by mainly setal characters such as the sum of the branches for both seta 1-Pa usually being 2–6. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of mainly setal characters, such as the sum of both seta 3–C (outer clypeal hairs) having 64–101 thick bunched branches and sum of both abdominal seta 8–V usually with 4–6 branches. Taxonomic keys are presented for the identification of adults, pupae and larvae which also give percentages of the reliability of taxonomic characters used in identifying An. smaragdinus. There are also tentative keys that appear to identify the eggs, but sample sizes were small. Electrophoretic methods seemed superior to polytene chromosomes for species identification. Larvae seem to prefer permanent waters such as swamps with emerging vegetation partially shaded by the tree canopy. Adults have been collected from large tree holes, from under bridges and culverts, from the eaves of buildings and from wooden boxes. Anopheles smaragdinus is only known from Levy County, Florida, USA.
Cumpston, J.H.L. 1924. Proceedings of the Pan-Pacific Science Congress (Australia, 1923) 2: 1400–1407. Ward (1992), page 210.
Name There is no mention of the derivation of the name. Although it seems reasonable to believe that it was named after the Solomon Islands there is no actual evidence for this. However, the Latinization of the name Solomon by adding ensis suggests a place name. Cumpston at a meeting of the Health Authorities in the Pacific Area apparently mentioned that An. solomonensis was a malaria vector on the Solomon Islands in response to a question. As there was no written description the name becomes nomen nudum.
The Solomon Islands are in Melanesia to the east of Papua New Guinea. They comprise almost 1,000 islands covering an area of 28,896 km2 with the capital Honaria located on the island of Guadalcanal which became famous during World War II (1942–1945) for the bombardment and bloody campaign fought by the Allies, mainly Americans. The Japanese, who had occupied the island, suffered heavy losses and were defeated. In about 30,000 BC the islands were probably inhabited by Papuan speaking settlers and in circa 4,000 BC by Austronesian speakers who brought various cultural items, including the outrigger canoe, to the islands. Later around 1,200 and 800 BC the ancestors of the Polyneasians arrived from the Bismarck Archipelago. The first European to visit the Solomons was the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira in 1568 who had sailed from Peru. This was followed by various missionaries visiting and sometimes settling on the islands during the mid-19th century. The evils of the slave trade, which were responsible for transporting local people to the sugar plantations in Queensland and Fiji, led the UK in 1893 to declare the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, followed in 1898 and 1899 by the addition of more islands to the Protectorate. Finally self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence in 1978. The Solomon Islands is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of the Solomon Islands, presently Elizabeth II, as head of state. Sadly, in 1998 ethnic violence erupted and there was government misconduct and an increase in crime. Eventually a multicultural force led by Australia managed to restore peace and order. On 2 April 2007 the Solomon Islands was struck by a major earthquake, 8.1 on the Richter scale, followed by a large tsunami which killed at least 52 people and destroyed more that 900 homes resulting in thousands of people becoming homeless. Because of centuries of geographical and ecological isolation the Solomon Islands have a greater diversity of animal species and higher number of endemic species than has any other Pacific Island nation. Although only 47 mammalian species occur on the Solomon Islands 26 of them are endemic or near endemic and many are endangered species. There are no marsupials or large mammals on the islands but nine species of rodents including Specht's mosaic-tailed rat (Melomys spechti), Poncelet's giant rat (Solomys ponceleti) and the emperor rat (Uromys imperator) are endangered as well as being endemic. There are also 21 species of bats including 15 species of fruit bats (Pteropodids), of which the Bougainville monkey-faced bat (Pteralopex anceps), Guadalcanal monkey faced bat (Pteralopex atrata) and the montane monkey-faced bat (Pteralopex pulchra) are endemic and critically endangered. Of 199 bird species 72 are endemic of which the San Cristobal moorhen (Gallinula silvestris) and thick-billed ground-dove (Gallicolumba salamonis) are classified as critically endangered as is the yellow-legged pigeon (Columba pallidiceps). Out of 130 species of butterflies 35 are endemic, and of 78 species of reptiles including crocodiles, eight species are endemic such as the giant prehensile-tailed skink (Corucia zebrata) and the keeled monitor lizard (Varanus spinulosus). There are about 4,500 species of plants on the Solomon Islands ranging from rain forest trees, grasses, coastal and swamp vegetation, as well as a variety of flowering plants including orchids, of which there are about 230 species and varieties. Most of the local economy is based on subsistence farming and fishing. Subsistence crops are mainly yams, taro (Colocasia esculenta), bananas and pineapples. Cash crops include copra (dried coconuts), cocoa and palm oil. The islands are also rich in gold, lead, nickel and zinc. Presently the population of the Solomon Islands is estimated as around 523,000 people.
Schmidt 2001. pp. 398–402. In Schmidt, Foley, Hartel, Williams and Bryan. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 91: 389–410. Formerly known as Anopheles farauti No. 3 of Mahon and Miethke (1982).
Name“The name is based on the known distribution of this species, encompassing both the Torresian zoogeographic province of northern Australia and southern New Guinea, the coastline of which was discovered in 1606 by Captain Luis Baez de Torres.”
The Torres Strait is about 150 km wide at its narrowest and is situated between Cape York peninsula off the northern tip of Queensland, Australia, and the south coast of Papua New Guinea. Although it is an important international sea lane it has a maze of reefs and at least 274 islands in its very shallow waters making it difficult to navigate. The size of the islands range from Prince of Wales Island, having a diameter of about 23 km to very small islands of less than a hectare in area. The islands of the Torres Strait have been inhabited for at least 2,500 years and possibly longer. Only 17 of these islands are now inhabited, and in a 2001 census 8,089 people were recorded. The islands are considered Australian territory and are administered from Thursday Island. The first known European navigation of the Strait was by Luis Váeze de Torres a Spanish or Portuguese pilot who was second-in-command of the Spanish expedition led by the Portuguese Pedro Fernández de Quirós who sailed from Peru to the South Pacific in 1605. After Quirós's ship returned to Mexico Torres resumed his intended voyage and sailed via the Moluccas to Manila. In 1769 a Scottish geographer, Alexander Dalrymple while translating various Spanish documents found Luis Váez de Torres's account that proved there was a passage south of New Guinea. Dalrymple then published the Historical Collection of the Several Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1770–1771. Dalrymple named the passage the Torres Strait. Captain James Cook was intrigued by these accounts of the Strait and undertook another voyage into the South Pacific sailing through the Strait and claiming eastern Australia for the British Crown. Dalrymple was bitterly disappointed that Cook was appointed commander of this expedition instead of himself. Although some of the Torres Strait islands lie just off the coast of New Guinea, they were annexed in 1879 by Queensland, then a British colony. The largest island is the Prince of Wales (Muralag) but Thursday Island has the most inhabitants, while Boigu, Saibi and Dauan are the most popular islands for bird watching. The Torresian imperial-pigeon or nutmeg pigeon (Myristicivora spilorrhoa) is the iconic national emblem of the islands. Horn Island (on which An. hinesorum occurs) has the only airport in the Torres Strait Island group, most of the other inhabited islands have only an airstrip. From the 1860's until about 1970 there was a thriving pearl industry in the Straits but this collapsed due to competition from plastic pearls. The Torres Strait is mentioned in Jules Vern's book, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, as being dangerous and causing the submarine, Nautilus, to be briefly stranded.
Taxonomic keys are presented for adult females, pupae and larvae to distinguish An. torresiensis from An. hinesorum and An. faurati. However, neither the adults, pupae nor fourth instar larvae of An. torresiensis can be differentiated from An. farauti and An. hinesorum with certainty, although a few taxonomic characters may allow a reasonable degree of identification of some life-stages. More accurate identification is achieved using the larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes, allozymes or PCR-RFLP. Little is known about the ecology of this species except that adults were collected in dry ice baited traps or during human bait collections. The immature stages were obtained from the collected adults. Anopheles torresiensis occurs in northern Australia, Queensland and the Western Province of Papua New Guinea.
Gillies and Coetezee 1987. pp. 81–89. In Publication of the South African Institute for Medical Research, No. 55, 143 pp. Ward (1992), page 183.
Name“The species is named for Gideon van Eeden of the National Institute for Tropical Diseases, Tzaneen, in recognition of his contribution towards clarifying the status of this perplexing species.” Formerly aruni? of De Meillon et al. (1977).
Gideon van Eeden was born in Johannesburg on 27 December 1915. He qualified as a Health Inspector in 1939 and shortly after completing his studies he had an interview with Dr. S. Annecke in Johannesburg who asked whether he could speak English, when Gideon said yes the interview was conducted in English and he joined Dr. Annecke at the Malaria Station in Tzaneen (later to be called the National Institute for Tropical Diseases). Initially he was engaged in doing social work on educating people about malaria and advising them how best to protect themselves against the disease. He also had to ensure that all houses were screened against mosquitoes, inspect them and issue permits. Sometime in the 1940's Gideon left Tzaneen and went to work in the small Province of Gauteng as a Health Officer. In Middelburg he had to deal with an outbreak of louse-borne typhus. Then on returning to Tzaneen in 1945 he assisted Dr. Annecke with the first DDT house spraying campaign Around this time he met Dr. O. Mastbaun, a German tropical disease specialist, who later went to Swaziland and was in charge of malaria research and control. Dr. Mastbaun asked van Eeden to join him, he accepted the invitation and became the first Health Inspector for Swaziland. He effectively ran the spraying campaign although officially it was under the control of Dr. Mastbaum (who in turn was advised by Botha de Meillon). Gideon had married Stella de Klerk in 1941 and during his time in Swaziland Stella taught at a local school. Gideon was a keen photographer and won many prizes at photographic exhibitions, and while in Swaziland in the 1950s he was the only photographer for weddings, passports, school group etc. In 1959 he was invited to attend a malaria course at Amani, Tanzania where he met Dr. Mick Gillies, a famous mosquito expert on African anopheline mosquitoes. In 1963 Gideon was back again at the Annecke Institute in Tzaneen as a Health Inspector and among other things he designed and then commissioned the construction of an insectory. In 1962 Gideon took the opportunity to accompany Hugh Patterson in the search for specimens of Anopheles gambiae s. l. in South Africa. Surprisingly, they collected a salt water species that they provisionally named as species C of the An. gambiae species complex, but that is now known to be An. merus. They also collected another new species of the An. gambiae species complex, An. quadriannulatus. In 1963 they published a paper on their findings. In 1976, together with Botha de Meillon, Gideon described a new anopheline mosquito, Anopheles deaconi [Now known to be a junior synonym of An. azevedoi]. In 1977 he was a co-author of a paper on An. funestus. He also contributed (pp. 91–96) to the festschrift in honor of Botha de Meillon (Coetzee, 1993). From van Eeden's contributions to the festschrift it is clear that he accompanied De Meillon to a conference at Augrabies Falls on the Orange River. While undertaking an investigation into the death of a person in Tzaneen caused by malaria he collected mosquitoes resting in houses in I think 1986 or a little earlier. On return to the laboratory, some of his mosquitoes were provisionally identified as An. funestus, a recognized malaria vector, but closer examination showed certain taxonomic differences to typical An. funestus, so he sent specimens to Dr. M.T. Gillies at the University of Sussex, England. Mick Gillies decided the specimens were a new species closely resembling An. funestus and in 1987 he and Maureen Coetzee named An. vaneedeni in his honor. Then in 1995 he accompanied Botha de Meillon, Hugh Paterson and others to Tete Pan near Ubombo (a small village in the Ubombo mountains that formed the border between Swaziland and KwaZulu-Natal) in order to participate in a Rockefeller Foundation project to study arboviruses. In addition to mosquitoes Gideon also worked on the Ceratopogonidae and other vector-borne diseases including plague. In 1981 Botha de Meillon and W. Wirth named a new species of Ceratopogonidae, Dibezzia gideoni, in his honor. There is a nice photograph taken by Gideon of de Meillon on the cover of the festschrift to De Meillon. There is also a nice photograph of van Eeden together with De Meillon and Paterson on page 96 of the festschrift. In addition to being a first class self-taught naturalist, gardener and good photographer he was also a keen carpenter and in his seventies he took up watercolor and oil painting. Gideon's home was near Magoebaskloofloof in a very rural setting surrounded by forest, chosen because of its isolation and richness in wild life. On returning home from a bowling club he was attacked and killed on 22 February 1997 at age 81. His wife had died in 1986 but he was survived by his two children. A son, Dr. Jan van Eeden, a physician who lives in Cape Town and a daughter Nita, a teacher, who is married to Rudi Kritzinger who was for 35 years a pilot for the South African Airforce, both live in Pretoria. They have four children, two girls Frieda and Stella and two sons Johann and Gideon.
Anopheles vaneedeni belongs to the An. funestus species group and taxonomically is close to An. funestus and An. aruni. It seems that adult females can be identified only when populations or families of funestus-like individuals have their wing-spot ratios plotted against palpal band ratios. Those with ratios of 1.5 or more are likely to be An. vaneedeni. Adult males may be identified as An. vaneedeni in 5–10% of specimens having a small patch of white scales at the base of the palpal club. Not a very practical method for identifying An. vaneedeni. Eggs, larvae and pupae cannot be distinguished from those of An. funestus. The polytene chromosomes of An. vaneedeni and An. aruni are homosequential. The specific status on An. vaneedeni is shown only by sterile hybrids resulting from crosses of An. funestus and An vaneedeni. Gillies and Coetzee failed to mention the sex of the adult type specimen when they described An. vaneedeni (Ward, 1992). Townsend (1990: p.146) states that the holotype in the NHM (The Natural History Museum), London is a male. However, M.T. Gillies in a 1991 letter says that when he visited the Museum he found the holotype specimen to be female. The specimen's label reads “Pusela, Tzaneen, resting outside, det. M. Coetzee.” Larval habitats are said to be the same as those of An. funestus. Adults are mainly exophagic, biting humans and also cattle. Laboratory bred females fed on gametocyte carriers showed they are susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum. Whether An. vaneedeni is a malaria vector in the Transvaal is unclear. Found in Tzaneen, South Africa.
Manh, Nguyen Duc, Tran Duc Hinh and Nguyen Tho Vien 1993. Mosquito Systematics 25: 215–221.
Name Not stated but presumably a Latinization of the country name Vietnam.
Vietnam regained independence from China in AD 938, and successive dynasties flourished alongside geographical and political expansion deeper into Southeast Asia, until Vietnam became colonized by the French in the mid-19th century. Vietnam became a unified country in 1976 but during the following three decades there were bitter wars of independence, fighting against colonial powers of France then against the U.S.-backed South Vietnam, which during the latter phases of the war became worldwide headlines. Vietnam is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in South East Asia, comprising a thin strip of land (1,650 km north to south) with an area of about 331,688 km2, excluding Hoang Sa and Truong Sa islands. It borders China in the north Laos in the northwest, Cambodia in the southwest and the South China Sea to the east. It is the 13th most populous country in the world having, according to the United Nations, a population of 88.5 million in 2008. Vietnam has numerous hills and densely forested mountains with level land comprising about only 20% of the country, whereas mountains account for 40% of the area and tropical forests 35% and permanent crops about 7%. Besides rice important exports are coffee, tea, rubber and fishery products. Vietnam is now the 3rd largest producer of oil in Southeast Asia, and the largest producer of cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale) and black pepper (Piper nigrum). Political organizations approved by the Communist Party can have candidates standing for election to Parliament and become elected as President. The President of Vietnam is the titular head of state, while the Prime Minister is the head of government and presides over a council of ministers. The capital is Hanoi, situated in the south. It became a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council in 2008. Vietnam is one of 25 countries considered to have a very high level of biodiversity and it is said that it has 16% of the world's species. There are about 848 species of birds of which about 100 are endemic, including the imperial pheasant (Lophura imperialis), Vietnamese pheasant (L. hatinhensis), black hooded laughing thrush (Garrulax milleti) and the grey-crowned crocias (Crocias langbianus). Of the 310 mammalian species, 78 are endemic and others are endangered, such as the Indochinese tiger (Tigris panthera corbetti), elephants, the pygmy Loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). There are 260 species of reptiles and 120 amphibian species, and about 15,990 plant species, but new species and genera of plants and animals are continually being discovered in Vietnam. Cu Phuong was made into a forest reserve in 1960 and then in 1962 Cu Phuong National Park was consecrated by President Ho Chi Minh and became the first National Park in Vietnam. As it is near Hanoi it is one of the most popular National Parks in Vietnam. For further information see under the entry cucphuongensis.
Anopheles vietnamensis is a member of the An. hyrcanus species group. It is closest to An. paraliae, adults of which it superficially resembles; other closely related species include An. lesteri and An. pursati. Anopheles vietnamensis differs from other species, such as An. paraliae, by a combination morphological characters. Such as adult females having very narrow apical pale bands on the hindtarsi, the humeral crossvein lacking a scale patch, presence of an apical pale fringe spot and a small dark band on the base of vein Cu (vein 5). Adult males are distinguished by their genitalia, especially with the aedeagus having five pairs of leaflets, of which the largest has a unique shape. The rim of the pupal trumpet is thin and lacks the thickened areas and the saw-tooth margin found in An. lesteri. Fourth instar larvae can be identified by a combination of characters, mainly setal ones, such as few branches on setae 8–C (sutural seta) and abdominal setae 4–II and 4–III. Eggs have a narrow deck but it is not clear whether they differ from those of other closely related species. Another factor that distinguishes An. vietnamensis from An. lesteri and An. paraliae is that An. vietnamensis has only been collected in non-coastal forested areas. No information is given on the ecology of this new species. Presently An. vietnamensis is known only from northern Vietnam but it may also occur in others counties such as Thailand.
Ma, Su-fang 1981b. Sinozoologica 1: 59–70 (In Chinese, breif English summary). Ward (1992), page 178.
Name Neither the original Chinese paper nor an anonymous English translation found on the Internet indicated the origin of the name xiaokuannus. Sadly Ma died in 2007 and so cannot help explain the derivation of the name of this species. However, Dr. Yiau-Min Huang says that “xiao kuanus” are two Chinese characters, and as pronounced, mean “slightly broad deck type eggs.”
Anopheles xiaokuanus is a species in the An. sinensis species group. It is very similar to An. yatsushiroensis but differs in that the width of the deck of the eggs is wider, and in the adults the hind tarsus has a broad pale basal and apical band. Larval habitats are cool clean waters with emergent plants. Adults are anthropophagic. Qu and and Zhu (2008) reported that Miao et al. (1988) had shown by cross hybridization experiments that An. xiaokuanus was considered a synonym of An. yatsushiroensis.
Dong, Zhou, Dong and Mao 2007. Entomotaxonomia 29: 37–43. (In Chinese, brief English Summary).
Name“Named in honor of Prof. XU Jin-jiang who contributes on Anopheles study (sic) in China.”
Unfortunately I can find very little information on the life and work of Professor Xu Jin-jiang, a renowned medical entomologist in China. However, I know he worked as early as 1974 on the taxonomy of anopheline mosquitoes especially the hyrcanus species group of which he described many new species such as An. hailarensis Xu and Luo and An. kiangsuensis Xu and Feng. Apart from traditional taxonomic studies he also used sequence differences of rDNA-ITS2 and species-diagnostic PCR assays as well as polytene chromosomes to assist in the identification of anopheline mosquitoes. He also studied culicine mosquito species such as Culex modestus inatomii (subspecies inatomii has now been elevated to specific status: Cx, inatomii). In addition to his work on the taxonomy and biology of Chinese mosquitoes he became very involved in the use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito bednets in China. In 1987 he published a paper on the use in China of permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets. In 1989 he was a participant in an international World Health Organization (WHO) meeting in Geneva that evaluated the role of insecticide bednets in reducing malaria transmission. For much of his career he was a professor at the Institute of Parasitic Diseases, China Center of Disease Control and Prevention, later becoming the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, a WHO Collaborative Center for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis. On learning that he had retired to Australia to join his daughter, I telephoned Professor Xu on 6 March 2010 and learned that he had retired 10 years ago, and that he lived in the State of Victoria.
Anopheles xui is morphologically similar to An. pursati and An. vietnamensis but can be identified by a combination of characters. For example, adult females lack pale scales at the base of the palps, humeral cross vein without scales but there are dark scales at the base of the costa vein. Male genitalia differ in having three spines on the dorsal lobe of the claspette and two long setae on the ventral lobe, and the aedeagus has 6 pairs of leaflets. Pupae have dark marks on the wing cases, while fourth instar larva have the antennal seta 1–A (shaft hair) with 5–8 branches and head seta 8–C (sutural seta) with 5–9 branches. Eggs have an extremely narrow deck being just 7–9% of the width of the egg, being much narrower than in An. pursati and An. vietnamensis. Little is known about the ecology of this species, except that larval habitats seem to be ponds. Only known from Yunnan Province of China.