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Keywords:

  • Sand flies;
  • Phlebotomus papatasi;
  • attractive toxic sugar baits;
  • ATSB;
  • control;
  • Israel

ABSTRACT:

We have previously shown that fermented ripe fruit is a strong attractant for several mosquito species, and when mixed with oral insecticide these attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) were highly effective for local mosquito control. In the present study, we compared the effects of ATSB presented in different ways on isolated populations of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. Experiments were carried out in the arid habitat of the Jordan valley, Israel where the effectiveness of three methods was compared: ATSB sprayed on patches of vegetation, net fence coated with ATSB, and bait stations soaked with ATSB. Spraying ATSB reduced the population to about 5% of the control area population. Barrier ATSB coated fences, had a similar effect decreasing the population to about 12% of the concurrent catch in the control site. The effect of ATSB presented on bait stations was much smaller and compared to the control, only caused the population to be reduced to 40%. In the control areas where only food dye marker was used, the solution presented on bait stations only marked an average of 22.3% of female sand flies while spraying vegetation and using barrier fences in the two other experiments marked about 60% of the females. Our experiments show that ATSB either sprayed on the vegetation or on barrier fences is an effective means against sand flies at least in arid areas where attractive plants are scarce or absent.