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Keywords:

  • Sand flies;
  • thermoelectric;
  • surveillance;
  • light;
  • carbon dioxide;
  • CDC trap

ABSTRACT:

In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of eleven commercial models of propane combustion traps for catching male and female Phlebotomus papatasi. The traps differed in physical appearance, amount of carbon dioxide produced and released, type and location of capturing device, and the method by which the trap suction fans were powered. The traps tested were the Mosquito Magnet™(MM)-Pro, MM-Liberty, MM-Liberty Plus, MM-Defender, SkeeterVac®(SV)-35, SV-27, Mosquito Deleto™(MD)-2200, MD-2500, MT150-Power Trap, and two models of The Guardian Mosquito Traps (MK-01 and MK-12). All trap models except the SV-35, the SV-27, the MD-2500, and the MK-12 attracted significantly more females than males. The SV-35 was the most efficient trap, catching significantly more females than all the other models. The MD-2200 and MK-12 models were the least effective in catching either female or male sand flies. These data indicate that several models of propane combustion traps might be suitable substitutes for either CO2-baited or unbaited light traps for adult sand fly surveillance tools. One advantageous feature is the traps’ ability to remain operational 24/7 for ca. 20 days on a single tank of propane. Additionally, the models that produce their own electricity to power the trap's fans have an important logistical advantage in field operations over light traps, which require daily battery exchange and charging.