• Sand flies;
  • control;
  • sampling;
  • Phlebotomus papatasi;
  • fumigant;
  • permethrin;
  • deltamethrin


The efficacy of a new smoke-generating formulation (fumigant, MidMos Solutions Ltd., GB), containing the active ingredients permethrin and deltamethrin, was evaluated against adult sand flies in an apartment (280 m3), a semi-open large animal shelter (enclosing an area of 300 m2), a closed Bedouin animal tent (104 m3), and a garden (141 m2) enclosed by a stone wall. In each location, four cages with approx. 100 Phlebotomus papatasi were exposed to the fumigant 0.5 m and 2.0 m above ground for 15 and 60 min. Controls were kept in untreated similar rooms and there were two repetitions. In the apartment and the animal tent, a single cartridge caused 100% mortality within 15 min. In the large animal shelter, one fumigant caused mortality of 86% in the lower cages and 75% in the upper cages after 15 min. After 60 min, mortality was 94 and 87%, respectively. With two fumigants, mortality was 98.5 and 91% after 15 min and after 60 min all sand flies were dead. In the garden, one fumigant caused mortality of 93% in the lower cages and 85.5% in the upper cages after 15 min. After 60 min the mortality was 98 and 92%, respectively. With two fumigants, all flies were dead within 15 min.