In order to assess the epidemiological potential of the Culicidae species in remaining areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, specimens of this family were collected in wild and anthropic environments. A total of 9,403 adult mosquitoes was collected from May, 2009 to June, 2010. The most prevalent among species collected in the wild environment were Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, the Melanoconion section of Culex (Melanoconion), and Aedes serratus, while the most common in the anthropic site were Coquillettidia chrysonotum/albifera, Culex (Culex) Coronator group, and An. (Ker.) cruzii. Mosquito richness was similar between environments, although the abundance of individuals from different species varied. When comparing diversity patterns between environments, anthropic sites exhibited higher richness and evenness, suggesting that environmental stress increased the number of favorable niches for culicids, promoting diversity. Increased abundance of opportunistic species in the anthropic environment enhances contact with culicids that transmit vector-borne diseases.