We report the results of control measures introduced to reduce the density of sand flies in domiciles and subsequent monitoring of the effects of these measures on the sand fly populations. The most common species of sand flies were Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani, which are naturally infected by Leishmania. A total of 268,382 (93.4%) sand flies were collected in ecotypes constructed with the aim of attracting sand flies, and 19,091 (6.6%) sand flies were collected in the ecotypes consisting of residences and other buildings. Human actions determine the growth or reduction of the sand fly population in human-occupied space. Understanding the dynamics of sand flies in this environment can substantially contribute to the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis.