The genetic diversity in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) was studied using RAPD markers. Thirtyfive fig cultivars originating from diverse geographical areas and belonging to three collections were analysed. Random decamer primers were screened to assess their ability to detect polymorphisms in this crop. Fortyfour RAPD markers were revealed and used to survey the genetic diversity and to detect cases of mislabelling. As a result, considerable genetic diversity was detected among the studied F. carica accessions. The relationships among the 35 varieties were studied by cluster analysis. The dendrogram showed two main groups composed of cultivars with similar geographic origin. Moreover, the male accessions (caprifigs) were clustered indistinctively within the female ones, suggesting a narrow genetic diversity among these accessions. Our data proved that RAPD markers are useful for germplasm discrimination as well as for investigation of patterns of variation in fig. Since this designed procedure has permitted to establish a molecular database of the reference collections, the opportunity of this study is discussed in relation to the improvement and rational management of fig germplasm.