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Species richness patterns and metapopulation processes – evidence from epiphyte communities in boreo-nemoral forests


  • Swantje Löbel,

  • Tord Snäll,

  • Håkan Rydin

S. Löbel (, H. Rydin, Dept of Plant Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala Univ., Villavägen 14, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. – T. Snäll, Dept of Mathematics and Statistics, P.O. Box 68, FIN-00014 Univ. of Helsinki, Finland.


For several epiphyte species, dispersal limitation and metapopulation dynamics have been suggested. We studied the relative importance of local environmental conditions and spatial aggregation of species richness of facultative and obligate epiphytic bryophytes and lichens within two old-growth forests in eastern Sweden. The effect of the local environment was analyzed using generalized linear models (GLM). We tested whether species richness was spatially structured by fitting variogram models to the residuals of the GLM. In addition, we analyzed the species-area relationship (area=tree diameter). Different environmental variables explained the richness of different species groups (bryophytes vs lichens, specialists vs generalists, sexual vs asexual dispersal). In most groups, the total variation explained by environmental variables was higher than the variation explained by the spatial model. Spatial aggregation was more pronounced in asexually than in sexually dispersed species. Bryophyte species richness was only poorly predicted by area, and lichen species richness was not explained by area at all.

Spatial aggregation may indicate effects of dispersal limitation and metapopulation dynamics on community species richness. Our results suggest that species groups differ in habitat requirements and dispersal abilities; there were indications that presence of species with different dispersal strategies is linked to the age of the host tree. Separate analyses of the species richness of species groups that differ in the degree of habitat specialization and dispersal ability give insights into the processes determining community species richness. The poor species-area relationship, especially in lichens, may indicate species turnover rather than accumulation during the lifetime of the host tree. Epiphyte species extinctions may be mainly caused by deterministic processes, e.g. changes in habitat conditions as the host tree grows, ages and dies, rather than by stochastic population processes.