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Keywords:

  • Apoptosis;
  • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide;
  • Incretin

Abstract

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was the first incretin to be identified. In addition to stimulating insulin secretion, GIP plays regulatory roles in the maintenance, growth and survival of pancreatic islets, as well as impacting on adipocyte function. The current review focuses on the intracellular signaling pathways by which GIP contributes to the regulation of β-cell secretion and survival, and adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis. Studies on signaling underlying the insulinotropic actions of the incretin hormones have largely been carried out with glucagon-like peptide-1. They have provided evidence for contributions by both protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (EPAC2), and their probable role in GIP signaling is discussed. Recent studies have shown that inhibition of the kinase apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) by GIP plays a key role in reducing mitochondria-induced apoptosis in β-cells through protein kinase B (PKB)-mediated pathways, and that GIP-induced post-translational modification of voltage- dependent K+ (Kv) channels also contributes to its prosurvival role. Through regulation of gene expression, GIP tips the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein family towards β-cell survival. GIP also plays important roles in the differentiation of pre-adipocytes to adipocytes, and in the regulation of lipoprotein lipase expression and lipogenesis. These events involve interactions between GIP, insulin and resistin signaling pathways. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2012.00196.x, 2012)