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Keywords:

  • clinical parameter;
  • oral health;
  • periodontopathogen;
  • periodontal disease;
  • pregnant women

Abstract

Aim

To describe the bacterial associations in the periodontal pockets of pregnant women and to correlate the presence of Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia (T. forsythia), Treponema denticola (T. denticola), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromona gingivalis (P. gingivalis) with periodontal parameters of severity.

Methods

The analysis was performed with 150 pregnant women. The examination consisted of an evaluation of bleeding, suppuration, probing depths, clinical attachment levels, hypermobility scores, the Silness and Löe Plaque Index, and the Löe and the Silness Gingival Index. Each periodontal pathogen was identified by polymerase chain reaction.

Results

A statistically-significant association was observed (< 0.01) between P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, between P. gingivalis and T. denticola, and between T. forsythia and T. denticola. Age was observed to be a risk factor in the development of moderate periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] = 4.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–21.3, = 0.0328). Age was significantly associated with increased pocket depth and plaque index (OR = 6.36, 95% CI = 1.8–22.2, = 0.0037). In pregnant women, the presence of P. gingivalis was found to increase the risk of developing a clinical attachment level ≥ 5 mm.

Conclusion

A high prevalence of P. gingivalis in pregnant women, especially in combination with T. forsythia and T. denticola, was associated with an increased risk of developing moderate periodontitis, and that association was more marked in pregnant women aged 30 years or older.