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Fig. S1. (a) Response curves considered for the two virtual species along both composite environmental variables (species 1 in black and species 2 in grey) (species 1: mean = −0.5 and SD = 0.3 for both axes; species 2: mean = 0.8 on axis 1 and mean = −1 on axis 2, SD = 0.5 for both axes), (b) potential (light blue and purple) and actual (dark blue and purple) niches of both virtual species in the climatic space, (c) pools of presence data for species 1, (d) pools of presence data for species 2.

Fig. S2. Response curves considered for the climatically biased presences (grey) for species 1 (a) and 2 (b), compared to the response curves of its fundamental distribution (black).

Fig. S3. (a) Evaluation results (sensitivity) according to the modelling technique, the number of presences, to the quality of presences and the number and balancing of pseudo-absences (mean over the method used to select pseudo-absences and the random selection of presences) (W stands for an equal weight of presences vs. absences). (b) Evaluation results (sensitivity) according to the modelling technique, the number of presences, to the quality of presences and the method used to select pseudo-absences (mean over the different numbers of pseudo-absences, the balancing of presences vs. absences, and the random selection of presences).

Fig. S4. (a) Evaluation results (specificity) according to the modelling technique, the number of presences, to the quality of presences and the number and balancing of pseudo-absences (mean over the method used to select pseudo-absences and the random selection of presences) (W stands for an equal weight of presences vs. absences). (b) Evaluation results (specificity) according to the modelling technique, the number of presences, to the quality of presences and the method used to select pseudo-absences (mean over the different numbers of pseudo-absences, the balancing of presences vs. absences, and the random selection of presences).

Table S5. Pearson’s product-moment correlation between the TSS and the correlation coefficient between the probability distribution obtained from modeling and the climatic suitability calculated to create the virtual species for all models.

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