An 11-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was presented for lameness investigation following acute onset hindlimb lameness, which developed during a period of paddock turnout. Clinical examination revealed a swelling over the dorsolateral aspect of the pastern that was painful on digital palpation. Radiography of this area was consistent with an aggressive bone lesion involving both joint surfaces of the middle phalanx with pathological fracture and distal collapse of this bone. On this basis, the horse was subjected to euthanasia. Post mortem histopathological examination revealed presence of an osteosarcoma without involvement of the articular cartilage. This bone tumour is extremely rare in horses and has not been reported in this anatomical location.