Metastasis or delayed local extension of ocular squamous cell carcinoma in four horses


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Four horses treated for ocular squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that subsequently developed local tumour extension or local metastases without ocular recurrence are included in this study. Medical records were examined and long-term follow-up obtained through contact with owners and referring veterinarians. In 2 horses, SCC developed in the nasolacrimal duct and maxillary sinus one and 3.5 years, respectively, after treatment for SCC in the medial canthus of the eye. No recurrence of the SCC was noted in the ocular structures. Both were treated successfully with surgery and radiation therapy. Two additional horses had delayed metastasis of SCC to the parotid lymph node one and 2 years after excision of the ipsilateral third eyelid for SCC. No recurrence of the SCC was noted in the ocular structures. One was treated with surgery and radiation without success and one was not treated. Ocular SCC can spread to local tissues or lymph nodes without recurrence in the eye. The clinical manifestation of tumour recurrence may be delayed. Delayed local extension or local metastasis in horses after ocular SCC without recurrence in the eye itself has not been previously reported. Clinical signs of ocular squamous cell carcinoma should prompt immediate treatment and local recurrence despite successful treatment of the ocular disease is a possibility.