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Ultrasonographic examination of the palmar/plantar aspect of the fetlock in the horse: Technique and normal images




The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive ultrasonographic technique to image the palmar/plantar aspect of the fetlock in the horse, from the manica flexoria (MF) down to the base of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) and to describe the normal images. Ultrasonography, in combination with radiography, is the technique of choice to identify and document tendon and ligament injuries in routine practice and has been shown adequate for evaluating the palmar/plantar aspect of the fetlock. Detailed descriptions of transverse and longitudinal sections performed on the weightbearing or flexed limb are provided, as well as the technique for dynamic examination of the area. A thorough knowledge of detailed ultrasonographic anatomy is critical to identify abnormal images and establish an accurate diagnosis of palmar/plantar fetlock injuries.