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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • oncology;
  • paraneoplasia;
  • hypercalcaemia;
  • hypertrophic osteopathy;
  • hypoglycaemia;
  • hypercupraemia;
  • tumour lysis syndrome;
  • cancer cachexia

Summary

Paraneoplastic manifestations of cancer, probably under-recognised in equine clinical practice, are often observed before the underlying primary disease is identified. This review provides a summary of paraneoplastic phenomena that have been reported in horses. The inclusion of paraneoplastic explanations in the differential diagnosis of common and challenging clinical problems should lead to earlier diagnosis and greater chance for successful therapeutic outcomes. In some cases, alterations in the clinical severity of paraneoplastic signs can be used as indicators of disease progression or response to treatment.